Objective: The water-soluble extract of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia (WER) is prepared from a solid medium composed of bagasse and rice bran overgrown with Ganoderma lucidum mycelia. Recently, we reported that WER shows a blood glucose-lowering effect in maltose-loaded non-diabetic mice. Here, we investigated the efficacy of WER in type 2 diabetic state using KK-Ay mice. Moreover, the food-drug interactions of WER with α-glucosidase inhibitors, voglibose or acarbose were examined using both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods: The glucose-lowering effects of oral administration in vivo of WER alone, or concomitant administration of WER with voglibose/acarbose on the elevation of blood glucose levels by sugar-tolerance tests were examined in KK-Ay mice. The inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase in vitro were also evaluated. Results: Oral administration of WER (1 g/kg), which did not affect fasting blood glucose, significantly suppressed the hyperglycemia after loading of maltose (18% of decrease in AUC) compared to the water-administrated control mice. In vitro study showed that WER inhibited maltase in concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of lower concentrations of voglibose or acarbose on α-glucosidase activity were additively enhanced by the presence of WER, but those of higher concentrations were not affected. The glucose-lowering effect of voglibose (0.1 mg/kg) disappeared in maltose-loaded KK-Ay mice when the drug was concomitantly administrated with WER (1 g/kg), whereas acarbose (16 mg/kg) with WER showed no significant change in its effect. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that WER shows the glucose-lowering effect in maltose-loaded KK-Ay, which may be based on inhibition of the α-glucosidase activity. The present study suggests that concomitant intake of WER with voglibose may override the therapeutic effect of voglibose on postprandial hyperglycemia by food-drug interaction in diabetic state.
Objective: We aimed to characterize patterns of use of complementary and alternative (CAM) therapies on patients with intractable neurodegenerative diseases and their caregivers. Methods: We sent questionnaires to 1,406 patients with subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy (SMON), amyotorophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Parkinson related disease, or spino-cerebellar degeneration (SCD). We also send questionnaires to the 1,406 caregivers of these patients. The participants were asked to answer questions about current use of Annma/Massage/Shiatu, acupuncture, Zyudoseifuku, Chinese medicine or Supplementary food. Other questions including reasons for the use, subjective effectiveness of the CAM and subjective wellness were also asked. Results: 33.7% of patients and 30% of caregivers responded to the questionnaires. Anna/Massage/Shiatu and Chinese medicine were most frequently used by patients (60.8%), and 51.3% of them answered that these therapies were effective. The caregiver’s response showed supplementary food and Anna/Massage/Shiatu were most frequently used (42.5%), and 35.9% of them answered that these were effective. Conclusion: The present study showed that use of CAM was 20.5% in patients with intractable neurodegenerative diseases and 9.8% among caregivers when calculated using collection rates. Annma/Massage/Shiatu was most frequently used and was regarded effective on subjective wellness both in the patients and caregivers.
Objective Design: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic polyarthritis leading to joint destruction and functional impairment. Degree of subjective pain has suitable correlation with quality of life (QOL) in patients with RA. Arthritis in animal models is usually assessed based on joint swelling and no standard method to evaluate pain or assessment of activity of daily life (ADL) is available. We aimed to develop a method to evaluate pain and ADL of arthritic animals based on activity score and examined the effects of Taxus yunnanesis (TY). Methods: Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was induced in rats by a subcutaneous injection of type II collagen. TY extract was made in boiled water and a group of CIA rats was given TY extract to evaluate its effects on CIA vs. a group drinking water. Arthritis was assessed by the following criteria and their correlation was analyzed; 1) joint swelling, 2) activity score, 3) serum albumin levels, 4) histology, and 5) x-ray. Result: Joints swelling was less in TY group vs. water group at 4 and 6 weeks. Activity score in water group fluctuated between 7 and 9 during the 4 week observation period. In contrast, activity score improved from 10 to 5–6 within a week in TY group had activity score of 5 after 3 weeks of drinking TY. Serum albumin levels were higher in TY group vs. water group. Conclusion: The newly developed activity score has good correlation with serum albumin levels and joint swelling, suggesting that the activity score may reflects pain and ADL in CIA rats and can be a potential new method to assess arthritis in animal models. TY extract may have anti-arthritic effects in CIA.
The purpose of this study was to examine effects of moderate-intensity endurance exercise on reactive oxygen species production and leukocyte activation markers in young and middle-aged persons. Blood samples were collected before and after the jogging of 10 km. Although cytokines recruiting and priming neutrophils and monocytes were released into the circulation and functional after the jogging of 10 km, reactive oxygen metabolites-derived compounds (d-ROMs) were not significantly increased. It was indicated that chemokines and leukocyte activation markers at rest were increased with aging, and that might be accompanied by the higher level of d-ROMs in the elderly.
Chaga (the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus) has been widely used as a folk medicine in the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Russia, Poland, and several Baltic countries. More recently, this herb has been assessed for its cancer-preventing activity. Using a mouse model of skin cancer, oral administration of Chaga was found to inhibit tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate following initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in mouse skin.
Effects of a dietary supplement of carp gallbladder powders, New-Eyereturn®, on visual functions were investigated in elder ophthalmic patients. The tablets (12 tablets/day) were taken by 15 and 12 subjects for one-month and three-month period, respectively. In comparison with the visual function data at baseline and thereafter, improvements of subjective symptoms by questionnaire was observed in a three-month intake group, although no significant difference of the values of visual acuity and intraocular pressure was recognized. These results suggest intake of this dietary supplement has a possibility to improve visual functions of elder people.
Integrative Medicine (IM) is rapidly gaining popularity in the US. Many hospitals provide IM service, many colleges have IM centers, and many people from cutting-edge institutes now gather at IM conferences. Even the US Senate and the Institute of Medicine, one of the National Academies, had held meetings on IM. In other words, the US as a whole country is paying attention to IM. This is because it is possible that IM may transform modern medicine. IM is a new medical paradigm aimed at the integration of various and multilayered matters: integration of conventional and complementary medicines, integration of practitioner and patient, integration of the whole person and integration of the medical system, to name a few. A recent trend in IM in the US is to pay particular consideration to mental and spiritual factors, along with diet and nutrition. The lifestyle of patients is crucial in obtaining the optimal therapeutic outcome, and therefore the enlightenment and empowerment of patients are necessary. To emphasize IM’s importance, a new concept of Integrative Health is recently introduced. IM in the US offers us a fresh perspective both on our medical system and on our personal health as well.