The author has long been involved in research on how Western clothing styles spread throughout Japan toward the end of the Tokugawa shogunate period. It is interesting to note that the French couturier S. Bouché, which happened to form a relation with Japan early on in the country's pursuit of exchange with foreign countries (in this case, France), played a key role in the diffusion of Western dress among the Japanese.
S. Bouché was established on November 18, 1862 as Crémieux Bouché & Cie, and then later as S. Bouché & Cie. The name of its shop was Aux Galeries de Paris, located at 29 Boulevart des Italiens. On March 7, 1865, the company name was changed from Crémieux Bouché & Cie to S. Bouché & Cie and a new shop was opened at 138 Rue de Rivoli. On April 26, 1867, a group led by Akitake Tokugawa, then the Popular Affairs Vice-Minister of Japan, visited the shop to purchase Western clothing. A month later on May 26, an agreement was signed that acknowledged S. Bouché & Cie as official purveyor to the Popular Affairs Vice-Minister of Japan. Printed on their shop card were a hollyhock trefoil coat of arms that they created, Japanese and Western swords, the Rising Sun design, and the words “Fournisseurs brevetés de sai le Prince Mimbou Tayo-Dono.” The research revealed that S. Bouché played no small role as a source of men's Western clothing that subsequently spread and developed throughout Japan. On March 28, 1882, S. Bouché & Cie was dissolved. The exchange between S. Bouché and Japan in the latter half of the 19th century set a milestone in the history of men's clothing in Japan.
Deodorization properties for ammonia (Am), acetic acid (Ac), and ethanethiol (Et) were studied by Tedlar bag and detection tube method for totally eighteen samples: six protein fibers of different origins, namely feather including down of water fowls, two scoured silks of different origins, natural wool, two kinds of descaled and crosslinked wools. In addition, samples were prepared by treating these fibers with Cu(II) (NO3)2 or duplicate mordanted with the copper salt and C. I. Mordant 3. Deodorizations with two kinds of activated carbons were measured as the reference.
By the measurements of their deodorization curves with 0.1 g of each sample, apparent initial rate constant of deodorization, k, and deodorization capacity, C, were estimated. It was found that k values of these samples were eventually larger than those of the references by 2 or 3 times, but C ranged 10 to 80％ of them. Ac was deodorized only by the feathers. For the deodorizations of Am and Et, the feathers were found to be most effective. In favorable cases, the two Cu(II) (NO3)2 treatments increased k and C values by several times.
Five types of niboshi (dried fish) —yellow sea bream, horse mackerel, flying fish, Japanese anchovy, and Japanese sardine—were used to prepare niboshi dashi (soup stock of small dried fish). These samples were subjected to organoleptic analysis using an FF-2A fragrance and flavor analyzer (Shimadzu Corporation). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was then used to quantitate and characterize the constituent amino acid- and nucleic acid-related substances. Results demonstrated that dashi of yellow sea bream possessed a characteristic odor different from those of the other four fish dashi. The taurine content, which is characteristic of niboshi dashi, was highest with yellow sea bream, at 310 mg/L. Dashi of flying fish, Japanese sardines, and Japanese anchovies contained high levels of histidine, which is bitter, and had a high total amino acid content, suggesting that this gives a rich flavor. Dashi of yellow sea bream and horse mackerel, in turn, contained high levels of sweet tasting amino acids such as alanine and glycine as well as umami amino acids. These constituents were thought to confer the unique sweet and umami flavors of niboshi dashi, despite its mild taste, which is attributable to the low total amino acid content. The 5'-IMP content of the 5 kinds of niboshi dashi was an average of about 150 mg/L.
The purpose of this research was to examine material in junior high school home economics textbooks and identify materials appropriate for use in citizenship education. Furthermore, we aimed to present a tentative plan for a citizenship education curriculum in junior high school home economics. We came to the following conclusions through an investigation of the relation between the existing textbooks for junior high school home economics and the components of citizenship education for home economics.
1. We were able to choose subject matter from existing textbooks. However, fostering citizenship in junior high school home economics education requires paying attention to two important issues: education of controversial issues and the development of a propensity for putting matters into perspective.
2. Lesson planning can be conducted by examining the home economics citizenship education content matrix for the two issues mentioned above. Therefore, by using existing home economics textbooks, in this research we present a tentative plan for citizenship education in junior high school home economics.