Shigemasa TANI, Rei MATSUO, Kazuhiro IMATAKE, Yasuyuki SUZUKI, Atsuhiko TAKAHASHI
Background: Higher fish consumption has been reported to be associated with a lower incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesized that higher fish intake may be associated with lower serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (L/H) ratios, an atherogenic marker, and healthier lifestyle behaviors.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2,768 apparently healthy males receiving no lipid-modifying therapy and visiting the Health Planning Center of Nihon University Hospital between April and August 2019.
Results: The average number of days of fish intake per week was 2.32 ± 1.31. The L/H ratio decreased significantly as the weekly frequency of fish intake (0-2 days, 3-4 days, or 5-7 days) increased (p < 0.0001). Multivariable regression analysis after adjustment for age, subject background factors, and cardio-metabolic risk revealed that increased weekly frequency of fish intake was a weak, but significantly independent determinant of a decreased L/H ratio (β = –0.064, p = 0.0008). Furthermore, as the frequency of fish intake per week increased, the proportion of subjects with cigarette smoking decreased (p = 0.003), the proportion of subjects engaging in habitual aerobic exercises increased (p < 0.0001), and the sleep duration and alcohol intake of the subjects increased (p < 0.0001).
Conclusions: These results suggest that a high weekly frequency of fish intake was associated with lower L/H ratios, as well as healthier lifestyle behaviors; thus, it may represent a component of a healthy lifestyle associated with a lower risk of CAD in Japanese males.
Objective The number of people with diabetes in Japan has risen rapidly, which impose a heavy burden on both patients and society. It is therefore important to develop effective strategies for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes based on individualized estimates of the trend of diabetes in the population. The aim of the present study was to survey the incidence of new-onset diabetes and identify the group of people who will require medical consultation due to hyperglycemia in the near future.
Methods 5,603 men and 4,420 women diagnosed as non-diabetes in the first year and who underwent health checkups in the next year were enrolled. The clinical parameters among the three groups (non-diabetes, subjects under treatment for diabetes, subjects needing medical consultation due to hyperglycemia) were compared.
Results The incidence of new-onset diabetes was 2.14%/year in men and 1.36%/year in women. It is considered a feature of our community that the majority of the subjects who newly developed diabetes were already on treatment at the second visit, probably during treatment for other lifestyle-related diseases. The subjects without treatment and those needing medical consultation due to hyperglycemia showed increased visceral obesity and exacerbation of glycemia.
Conclusion In order to improve diabetes care in the community, it is important to understand the characteristics of subjects who will require medical consultation due to hyperglycemia in the near future and to encourage medical consultation by a doctor explaining the results on the day of the health checkup.