Because of Japan's exclusionary policies, Western maps of Japan depended on Japanese native maps from the end of the 17th century. They were reproduced repeatedly using Japanese vernacular maps for reference. However, Western exploratory navigations around the Japanese islands and the appearance of Sekisui Nagakubo's detailed native maps of Japan in 1779 brought this practice to an end. Modifying Nagakubo's map with hydrographic data, the Russian navigator, Adam Johann von Krusenstern （1717-1801） compiled a chart entitled Carte de l'Empire du Japon. He incorporated thousands of place names originally transcribed by the Dutch diplomat Isaac Titsingh （1745-1812） into his chart. Titsingh had resided intermittently in Japan from 1779 to 1784 and romanized place names in Nagakubo's map written in kanji and kana. Subsequently this chart played a leading role in the Western mapping of Japan during the mid-19th century; it was adopted as the main source of the Admiralty chart of Japan printed in 1855.
In this paper, we propose a method to critically understand the characteristics of contemporary urban space by creating a new map with applied design of “Edo-kiriezu”, which is a kind of large-scale picture maps produced by one of major map publishers in Edo period in Japan.
In Chapter 1, we summarize the history of “Edokiriezu” and consider the meaning of it. “Edo-kiriezu” is a series of guide maps that can be carried around, which was widely used at the time. Published and sold during the Edo period（ 1603 to 1868）, especially “Owariya version”, which was released in 1849 and sold until 1870, was widely known for its vivid color design. It was useful not only as a practical navigation map but also as a souvenir for Edo city. It is still used as a collection to old map collecters and also used as a material to study Edo city.
In chapter 2, we describe the results of analyzing color usage of Owariya version “Edo-kiriezu”. In addition to being deformed into a form far apart from the geographically accurate, the “Edo-kiriezu” is characterized by its vivid color usage. We focused on the coloring of “Edo-kiriezu”, measured the proportion of a specific color occupying the map printed area, and compared the figures with other “Edo-kiriezu”. As a result, we found that the color showing the road is less scattered than the color showing the water surface, the green area. It can be inferred that the “Edo-kiriezu” is designed so that the amount of the road on the drawing surface is a constant ratio, regardless of the region or the range shown, and this is an important element for creating the character of “Edo-kiriezu”.
In chapter 3, we describe the process of “Modern Edo-kiriezu” for university campus and current Tokyo urban area. What was clarified by the production is that most existing elements in modern cities did not exist in the Edo period, and we need to apply roads and buildings to the “Edo-kiriezu” schema in order to draw them. For that purpose, we interpreted the meaning of elements and distinct to express it as a drawing picture. This view was also to capture modern cities from the viewpoint of pedestrians, which is characteristic of the Edo period. We also studied the design to make maps look like “Edo-kiriezu”. It turned out that the color usage on the picture works strongly on it.
In Chapter 4, we present a summary of this research and discuss how the process of making “Modern Edo-kiriezu” is an opportunity to critically capture and review urban space and urban landscape.