This study aimed to examine the relationship between parents’ involvement in adolescents’ career decision making and its effect on the independence and adaptability of university students. Questionnaires were completed by 180 university students. The results revealed that parents’ involvement was positively related to the dependency and obedience of adolescents, and that decision-making ability was negatively related to obedience. Parents’involvement also decreased decision-responsibility, although it increased decision-making ability. In addition, parents’ involvement was related to students’ satisfaction with university life. First, decision-making ability was positively related to satisfaction with university life. Second, when decision-making ability was high, parents’involvement was not related to satisfaction, while the contrary was also true. When career decision making was difficult, parents’ involvement may have supported better career decision making. In conclusion, it is better that parents are not too involved and encourage decision-making; however, if this is difficult, giving support is better than leaving them alone.
The aim of this study was to investigate why certain youths identify with delinquent groups by examining specific factors that increase identification with them, such as intergroup relationships. Specifically, we hypothesized that the permeability of group boundaries would moderate the effect of group discrimination on identification with a delinquent group. In total, 96 male youths were recruited from four juvenile classification homes. The results revealed that youths who perceived group boundaries with lower compared with higher permeability cognitively identified with delinquent groups more strongly when perceiving group discrimination from teachers or the police; this finding supported our hypothesis. No other significant interaction effect was observed. Conversely, in terms of affective identification, we found an unexpected interaction between the permeability of group boundaries and group discrimination from peers. Overall, the findings did not support our hypothesis. However, some of the results suggest that delinquent youths may be able to decrease cognitive group identification by having friends outside of the delinquent group, even if they experienced discrimination from conformity groups such as teachers and the police.
This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess sleep habits between students with/without a discrepancy of ≥2 hrs in wake-up time (WUT) on school days and free days, and to determine whether the discrepancy is associated with daytime sleepiness, lowered mental/physical health and poor academic performance. A total of 4,392 students in 13 junior high schools completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographic information, sleep-wake patterns, daytime sleepiness, irritability and academic performance. We classified the students into two groups: those with/without a discrepancy between school day and free day WUT. The discrepancy prevalence was 38.4%. More students with the discrepancy skipped breakfast and did not attend a school club activity compared to those without the discrepancy. They also went to bed 22 min later and slept 21 min less on school days than those without the discrepancy. In a generalized linear mixed model, the discrepancy was associated with daytime sleepiness, irritability and poor academic performance. The WUT discrepancy of ≥2 hrs with a delayed circadian rhythm can be associated with lower mental/physical health and poor academic performance among adolescents.
University students in Japan tend to listen to music frequently, perhaps to regulate their current mood. In the present study, we aimed to develop the Japanese version of the “Brief Music in Mood Regulation” scale (B-MMR) and examined its reliability and validity. Based on 307 Japanese undergraduates’ responses, we constructed the Japanese version of the B-MMR, which is comparable with the original B-MMR. Moreover, we confirmed that several aspects of the Japanese version of the B-MMR are positively correlated with general emotional regulation and stress coping strategies. Our Japanese version of the B-MMR can be used in future studies to explore the effects of listening to music on people’s quality of life and well-being.
This study aimed to vertically scale the mathematics and Japanese academic ability tests of the Japan Child Panel Survey (JCPS) for elementary school first year students through junior high school third year students(grades 1-9 in the U.S.). We used an anchoring test design based on the item response theory. Two test samples were used: JCPS test participants (n = 3,916) and anchoring test participants (n = 7,210). After estimating the item parameters with a two-parameter logistic item response model, the equating coefficients were estimated with the Haebara method. The tests were scaled for elementary school fifth year (grade 5) in the end. The number of items included in the final analyses was 94 for mathematics and 108 for Japanese language studies. The mean level of estimated individual latent academic ability progressed according to grade level. Therefore, the JCPS tests appear to be able to capture the developmental changes of students from elementary school to junior high school. Future research should examine the relationship between children’s academic development and various factors, such as psychological traits or family environment, using the JCPS research data.
Few studies have examined serial physiological variations during the concealed information test (CIT). This study analyzed both pre- and post-stimulus physiological measures from a CIT experiment under knowledgeable and unknowledgeable conditions. The physiological measures assessed in both the pre- and post- stimulus phases included skin conductance level (SCL), normalized pulse volume (NPV), and heart rate (HR). Moreover, skin conductance response (SCR) was assessed in the post-stimulus phase. The results showed that the post-stimulus SCL and SCR and post-stimulus NPV in the knowledgeable condition differed not only between the relevant and irrelevant CIT items but also between the irrelevant items that were presented before and after the relevant items. In both knowledgeable and unknowledgeable conditions, physiological activities and reactivity were higher at early positions than at late ones. However, in the knowledgeable conditions, serial positions of the relevant items modulated this tendency, such that physiological activities were maintained until the relevant item was presented and then declined afterwards. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between attachment needs toward an ex-partner and transition of stage of relationship dissolution. People who experienced relationship dissolution within the previous year that was initiated by their ex-partner were eligible for this study. Based on the results of the latent rank theory, the participants were divided into three ranks. Results of the multiple logit model suggested that the selective probability of rank 3 to rank 2 was associated among attachment needs toward ex-partner, attachment anxiety, remorsefully attitude of ex-partner, and selective probability of rank 2 to rank 1 was associated with attachment needs toward the ex-partner and a sincere attitude of the ex-partner. These results showed that attachment needs toward an ex-partner is an important factor for the transition to stage of romantic dissolution similar to attachment style.
Correlations between the type of regulatory focus orientation and performance levels were investigated from the perspective of conserving cognitive resources. University students (N = 64) participated in the experiment. They were induced to have a promotion- or prevention-focused orientation and were required to conduct a lower priority task followed by a higher priority task. Results indicated that when the prevention-focused orientation was activated, participants did not spend much effort to achieve lower priority tasks and the performance level was lower compared to when the promotion-focused orientation was activated. It was considered that the intention for conserving cognitive resources increased because the prevention-focused participants knew that they would be engaging in a higher priority task in the future. Conversely, these same participants demonstrated higher performance in higher priority tasks implemented later, compared to when the promotion-focused orientation was activated. The above results suggest that cognitive resources are allocated intentionally under prevention-focused conditions.
Previous studies have shown that the physical movements of participants influence creativity thinking. We examined whether another type of movements (bigger or smaller arm movements) modulates creative idea productions. In Experiment 1 participants were required to generate new names for rice after performing bigger or smaller arm movements. Bigger arm movements were associated with more divergent idea productions (e.g., non-typical ideas) compared to smaller arm movements. In Experiment 2, another task was used to generate as many ideas as possible for creative gifts the participants might give to an acquaintance, and the results showed the possibility that bigger arm movements led to more flexible idea generation than did smaller one. Taken together, the current study suggested the size of movements modulated creative thinking: bigger ones increased divergent creative thinking, possibly because bigger physical movements facilitate the divergent cognitive processing mode.
Despite having positive attitudes about crime prevention behaviors, many people do not engage in actions to prevent crime. In this study, therefore, we tried to explain the gap between attitudes and behaviors from the perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). In Study 1, female undergraduate and graduate students (N = 302) answered a questionnaire containing TPB variables (attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and perceived control). In Study 2, a web-based survey constructed from TPB variables was conducted with mothers (N = 725) that had children aged 7–12 years. Results of the structural equation modeling indicated that the fitness of model to the data was good in both studies. In Study 1, subjective norm and self-efficacy facilitated behavioral intention, which in turn led to personal crime prevention behavior. In Study 2, attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and perceived control facilitated behavioral intention, which resulted in cooperative crime prevention. These findings suggest that in order to encourage crime prevention behavior, we should take into account not only attitudes but also subjective norms and self-efficacy.
We often encounter various anomalous behaviors of systems, such as machine failures, unexpected behaviors of intelligent agents, and irregular natural phenomena. In order to predict these anomalous behaviors, it is a useful strategy to infer the causal structure of target domains (the inference-based strategy). However, we assume another strategy, the memory-based strategy, to memorize the anomalous behaviors for the predictions. In the present study, we analyzed the features and benefits of the memory-based strategy using the spatial movement prediction task. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that participants who were instructed to apply the memory-based strategy encoded only the anomalous instances, and not the regular instances. Additionally, the inference-based strategy was more effective for identifying the anomalous instances in a low-complexity task, whereas the memory-based strategy was more effective in a high-complexity task. Experiment 3 revealed that it was difficult to spontaneously select an appropriate strategy based on task complexity and to make benefits of the memory-based strategy for a high-complexity task even if the strategy was applied.
In this study, we proposed three image analysis methods (wavelet transform, singular value decomposition, and Fourier transform) to evaluate drawings of the tree test quantitatively, and demonstrated the analyses to three images of the tree test drawn by schizophrenic patients. Wavelet analysis suggested that information about the position of drawn trees (direction, depth and width of drawn lines) can be captured. Fourier analysis suggested that information about the direction and depth of drawn lines can be captured. Singular value decomposition suggested that information about the position and direction of drawn lines can be captured. Further research is needed to consider the features of mathematical image analysis in detail, and apply them to analysis of the tree test.
This study investigated the effect of the type of backchannel utterances (BU) on idea generation. Three types of BU were affirmative, neutral, and non-affirmative. Two categories of task were predicting consequences and devising resolutions. Thirty undergraduate students participated in the present experiment. Dependent variables were the number of ideas generated, speaking time, motivation of speakers, and speakers’ perception of listeners’interest in, agreement with, and admiration of speakers’ ideas. The main results were as follows: (a) affirmative BU was significantly effective for idea generation only in the prediction task, and (b) affirmative BU was effective for other dependent variables in both tasks. These findings showed the effectiveness of affirmative BU as a strategy for facilitating idea generation. The interaction of BU type and task was interpreted in terms of the possibility that the two kinds of tasks involved different thinking processes. Because the interaction was found only for idea generation, it was suggested that BU had two influencing pathways:increasing motivation through positive affect and activating idea generation itself.
Working memory (WM) is a capacity-limited cognitive system that strongly relates to higher-order cognitive abilities including fluid intelligence. It has been suggested that WM training can increase memory capacity, which in turn, improves general intellectual abilities. To evaluate these claims, the present review critically re-assessed nine meta-analysis studies, and revealed that the effect of WM training on fluid intelligence (Gf), executive function, and academic performance is relatively small (averaged Hedges’ adjusted g < .20). Moreover, there were several methodological issues regarding the study design (placebo effect, small sample size), analytical approach (inadequate group comparison, lack of correction for multiple comparisons), and theoretical framework (lack of theoretical account of the training mechanisms) in previous WM training studies. We propose a set of recommendations for future training studies that go beyond training the WM ability per se. This includes theoretically possible methods to enhance intellectual abilities by, for example, learning strategies to effectively encode and recall information into long-term memory.