This study investigated the relationship between time perspective and the five Dimensions of Identity Development (DIDS) among adolescents. Based on a dual-cycle model of identity formation, both the time perspective toward the past, present, and future and the time perspective profile were examined using questionnaire responses from 196 undergraduates. Multiple regression results showed that the future time perspective was mainly related to all DIDS; the past time perspective was related to the dimensions of exploration; and the present time perspective was related to the dimensions of commitment making. Cluster analysis revealed a Japanese-specific time perspective profile that was positive toward the future and present but negative toward the past. ANOVA results suggested that adolescents with a perspective profile that was positive toward all times or a profile that was negative toward the past had the most adaptive DIDS. Future studies will need to address the longitudinal relationship between time perspective and each dimensions of identity development.
This study investigated sleep quality, anxiety and depression variations during pregnancy (second and third trimester) to one month postpartum, as well as their relationships with each time period. A survey targeted 402 women who were pregnant or one-month postpartum using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The total score of PSQI, sleep duration, and habitual sleep efficiency at one month postpartum were worse than during the second and third trimesters; however, sleep disturbance scores were better at one month postpartum. There were no significant differences in anxiety and depression. The second trimester of pregnancy was related to anxiety, The total score of PSQI, and sleep quality. Anxiety was related to the presence of complications. At one month postpartum, sleep quality was related to anxiety and disturbed sleep, whereas sleep quality and difficulty staying awake during the day were related to depression. These results suggest that understanding the characteristics of women's sleep during pregnancy and postpartum period will be helpful in predicting women's anxiety and depression.
This study examined the inhibiting factors of satisficing response on multiple-answer format (MA) in volunteer panel Web surveys. Data were based on two Web surveys in the Tokyo metropolitan area (one of 2,257 Japanese adults in March 2014, and the other of 519 Japanese adults in October 2017). The results revealed the following: (a) respondents endorsed fewer options and took less time to answer MA than forced choice format (FC); (b) an acquiescence tendency was not found for almost all the items in FC; and (c) satisficing responses were not inhibited by the number or properties of items. Results (a) and (b) suggest that MA may encourage satisficing response strategies. Furthermore, these tendencies can be seen not only in attitudinal (judgment-type) questions, but also behavioral (recall-type) questions. These results indicate the strength of satisficing response behaviors, so the use of FC is recommended in volunteer panel Web surveys.
In this study, we developed a Japanese version of the Professional Quality of Life Scale for Nurses (ProQOL-JN). The scale was designed to evaluate the quality of life of people working as health care professionals and involves three subscales: compassion fatigue/secondary traumatic stress, compassion satisfaction, and burnout. The scale’s reliability and validity were examined using data from 618 Japanese nurses. The results indicated that this scale had three component structures; furthermore, a test–retest correlation and an internal consistency indicated that the scale had high reliability. Correlations with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, the Japanese version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and the Japanese version of the Burnout Inventory were mostly consistent with the current theory of professional quality of life, which supports the high validity of the ProQOL-JN. These results indicated that the scale has the required reliability and validity to measure nurses’ quality of life.
This study aimed to reveal the risk factors for a person to perpetrate stalking-like behaviors following the end of a romantic relationship based on personality traits (attachment anxiety and narcissism), the characteristics of a romantic relationship before a breakup, and the emotions and thoughts of a person after a breakup. To develop two scales measuring the characteristics of a romantic relationship before a breakup and the emotions and thoughts of a person after a breakup, a web-based survey of 189 females and 165 males was conducted in Study 1. In Study 2, a national survey was conducted using two-stage stratified sampling; 106 females and 110 males who experienced the end of a romantic relationship during the past five years and did not initiate their most recent breakup were analyzed. The results of a multiple-group analysis revealed that both attachment anxiety and feelings that a partner was his/her “one and only” increased egoistic preoccupations after a breakup, and the egoistic preoccupations predicted the perpetration of stalking-like behaviors in both males and females.
This study examined whether people’s level of basic scientific knowledge is associated with their anxiety levels pertaining to a wide range of hazards. We conducted a nationwide survey and collected data from a highly representative sample (N = 1,073). Participants rated their anxiety level regarding 51 hazards as well as their level of trust in organizations regarding the management of each hazard. Additionally, they answered 11 basic scientific knowledge questions. The results of a hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that the level of people’s basic scientific knowledge was associated with the level of anxiety they felt about hazards, even after controlling for the effects of sex and trust level. However, the results also suggested that the explanatory power of knowledge was low. The interpretation of these results is discussed with a focus on the deficit model of science communication.
This study clarified some psychological mechanisms related to uncooperative decisions by considering the trends of regional differences in emotions related to reconstruction activities. We administered an internet-based questionnaire survey of 779 Japanese people from eight regions reflecting various geographical distances and levels of damage from the disaster in 2011 or previous disasters. Exploratory factor analysis results showed that eight emotional evaluations for supporters and dissenters of reconstruction activities were grouped into two common structures: positive and negative. Analysis of variance results showed that among supporters, there were no regional differences for high positive emotions or low negative emotions. For dissenters, current damage and historical damage were significantly associated with negative emotions and suppressed positive emotions. These results indicate that empathy resources such as damage from a past disaster are associated with people's emotional state or attitudes related to reconstruction activities.
People may mistakenly regard a previously known idea as their own: this phenomenon is called “cryptomnesia.” This paper reviews cryptomnesia-related experimental studies that originated with the pioneering work of Brown and Murphy (1989). Previous research has specified the factors that increase or decrease the incidence of cryptomnesia. These studies found that the cognitive processes underlying the phenomenon of cryptomnesia are complicated and involve various factors such as the evaluation of memory trace strength, the nature of memory representation, the credibility of the originator, the experimenter's instructions, and feelings. These findings also provide some suggestions for exploring how to reduce the incidence of cryptomnesia and performing further research.