The Journal of Medical Investigation
Online ISSN : 1349-6867
Print ISSN : 1343-1420
ISSN-L : 1343-1420
Volume 60 , Issue 1.2
Showing 1-24 articles out of 24 articles from the selected issue
Reviews
  • Michio Shimabukuro, Chisayo Kozuka, Shin-ichiro Taira, Koichi Yabiku, ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 1-14
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The obesity epidemic is a global public health concern that increases the likelihood of morbidity and mortality of metabolic and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and threatens to reduce life expectancy around the world. The concept of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) takes into account that visceral fat plays an essential role in the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, MetS cannot be used to assess global CVD risk but is at best one more modifiable CVD risk factor. Thus, global cardiometabolic risk (the global risk of cardiovascular disease resulting from traditional risk factors combined with the additional contribution of the metabolic syndrome and/or insulin resistance) should be considered individually. There is solid evidence supporting the notion that excess abdominal fat is predictive of insulin resistance and the presence of related metabolic abnormalities currently referred to as MetS. Despite the fact that abdominal obesity is a highly prevalent feature of MetS, the mechanisms by which abdominal obesity is causally related to MetS are not fully elucidated. Besides visceral fat accumulation, ectopic lipid deposition, especially in liver and skeletal muscle, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetes, insulin resistance and obesity-related disorders. Also, ectopic fat deposition could be deteriorated in the heart components such as (1) circulatory and locally recruited fat, (2) intra- and extra-myocellular fat, (3) perivascular fat, and (4) pericardial fat. In this review, the contribution of ectopic lipid deposition to global cardiometabolic risk is reviewed and also discussed are potential underlying mechanisms including adipocytokine, insulin resistance and lipotoxicity. J. Med. Invest. 60: 1-14, February, 2013
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  • Yoichi Otomi, Hideki Otsuka, Kaori Terazawa, Hayato Nose, Michiko Kubo ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 15-20
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Incidental 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in blood vessel walls is sometimes demonstrated during routine oncologic imaging with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). FDG uptake in vessel walls can also be seen under some non-physiological conditions such as vasculitis and arteriosclerosis. Radiologists need to be aware of the diseases which can exhibit FDG uptake in the vessel wall for proper interpretation. J. Med. Invest. 60: 15-20, February, 2013
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Originals
  • Tomoteru Kishimoto, Tomoya Fukawa, Kunihisa Yamaguchi, Yasuyo Yamamoto ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 21-26
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Objectives: Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is known to play physiological and pathophysiological roles in the cardiovascular system, and MR activation directly damages these organs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of MR and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) in the human penile corpus cavernosum. Methods: MR and 11β-HSD2 expression was assayed in human penile tissues, and also in human renal tissues as a positive control. Expressions of MR mRNA and 11β-HSD2 mRNA were evaluated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). MR and 11β-HSD2 were visually identified using immunofluorescence analysis. Results: MR mRNA expression in human penis was confirmed by RT-PCR. On quantitative RT-PCR analysis, 11β-HSD2 mRNA expression was detected at minimal levels in penile tissue. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed positive staining for MR and negative staining for 11β-HSD2 in smooth muscle cells of the corpus cavernosum. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the presence of MR and the absence of 11β-HSD2 in human penile corpus cavernosum. Considering that MR activation causes various organ damages, MR blockade in human penile corpus cavernosum may have therapeutic benefits. Investigations for the penile effects of MR activation have the potential to provide new treatment approaches for erectile dysfunction. J. Med. Invest. 60: 21-26, February, 2013
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  • Fumiyo Yamada, Daisuke Horie, Asako Nakamura, Ayako Tanimura, Hironori ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 27-34
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Type IIa sodium-dependent phosphate transporter (NaPi-IIa) is responsible for renal phosphate reabsorption and maintenance of systemic phosphate homeostasis in mammals. Macromolecular complex formation of NaPi-IIa with sodium-proton exchanger related factor-1 (NHERF-1) and ezrin is important for apical membrane localization in the proximal tubular cells. Here, we investigated the interactions of the ezrin phosphomimetic mutation of serine to aspartic acid at 249 with NHERF-1 and the inhibition of apical membrane localization of NaPi-IIa. In vitro phosphorylation analysis revealed that serine 249 of human ezrin serves as a phosphorylation site for protein kinase A. The N-terminal half of ezrin had a dominant negative effect on the phosphate transport activity and inhibited the apical localization of NaPi-IIa in renal proximal tubular cells. We found that the phosphomimetic S249D mutant interfered with the inhibitory effects of the dominant negative mutant on the transport and localization of NaPi-IIa. The S249D mutant also inhibited the interaction with NHERF-1. Therefore, serine 249 of ezrin can play important roles in the regulation of the complex formation and membrane localization of NaPi-IIa. J. Med. Invest. 60: 27-34, February, 2013
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  • Masaaki Shibata, Masaaki Takahashi, Munehiro Yoshino, Takeshi Kuwahara ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 35-40
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Rilpivirine (TMC-278) is a second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that is high potent against both wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1 strains. Therefore, rilpivirine is expected to treat therapy-experienced patients who failed to use current drugs due to the emergence of drug-resistant HIV mutants. The quantification of rilpivirine in human plasma is important to support clinical studies and determine pharmacokinetic parameters of rilpivirine in HIV-1 infected patients. Consequently, simple and easy system to determine plasma rilpivirine concentrations has been required. In this study, we developed a conventional LC-MS method to quantify plasma rilpivirine. Subsequently the method was validated by estimating the precision and accuracy for inter- and intraday analysis in the concentration range of 18-715 ng/ml. The calibration curve was linear in this range. Average accuracy ranged from 100.0 to 100.6%. Relative standard deviations of both inter- and intraday assays were less than 3.3%. Recovery of rilpivirine was more than 82.0%. These results demonstrate that our LC-MS method provides a conventional, accurate and precise way to determine rilpivirine in human plasma. This method can be used in routine clinical application for HIV-1 infected patients, and permits management of drug interactions and toxicity for rilpivirine. J. Med. Invest. 60: 35-40, February, 2013
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  • Masafumi Koga, Ikki Shimizu, Jun Murai, Hiroshi Saito, Soji Kasayama, ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 41-45
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus (FT1DM) develops as a result of very rapid and almost complete destruction of pancreatic β cell. The most common form of type 1 diabetes mellitus with onset during pregnancy has been shown to be FT1DM at least in Japan. We previously reported that the ratio of glycated albumin (GA) to HbA1c (GA/HbA1c ratio) is elevated in FT1DM patients at the diagnosis. In the present study, we investigated whether the GA/HbA1c ratio is also elevated in FT1DM with onset during pregnancy (P-FT1DM). The study subjects consisted of 7 patients with P-FT1DM. Ten patients with untreated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) discovered during pregnancy (P-T2DM) and 9 non-pregnant women with untreated T2DM (NP-T2DM) were used as controls. All study patients satisfied HbA1c < 8.7%, the diagnostic criteria for FT1DM. The GA/HbA1c ratio in the P-FT1DM patients at the diagnosis was significantly higher than that in the P-T2DM patients and the NP-T2DM patients. The GA/HbA1c ratio was ≥ 3.0 in all P-FT1DM patients, whereas it was < 3.0 in 8 of 10 P-T2DM patients and all NP-T2DM patients. The GA/HbA1c ratio was also elevated in P-FT1DM patients at the diagnosis compared with T2DM with or without pregnancy. J. Med. Invest. 60: 41-45, February, 2013
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  • Ryota Bando, Hitoshi Ikushima, Takashi Kawanaka, Takaharu Kudo, Motoha ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 46-51
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The treatment period over which radiation therapy is administered extends over several weeks. Since tumor shrinkage in response to radiation therapy and weight loss due to radiation-induced mucositis may impact on the dose distribution in both target and organ at risk in patients with head and neck cancer, the anatomical changes of tumor and neck volumes during this period should be taken into consideration. We investigated the anatomical changes that occurred in the target and normal structure of the neck during radiation therapy for pharyngeal cancer, and evaluated the necessity of an adaptive strategy. Ten patients with pharyngeal cancer who underwent radical chemoradiation therapy using 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy RT (66-70 Gy in 33-35 fractions) between April 2009 and September 2010 were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent CT scans every week during their course of treatment. We analyzed the CT data in the radiation treatment planning system and measured changes of tumor, organ at risk, and neck volume. Gross tumor volume (GTV) was rapidly reduced by 28% of the original volume on average in the first 3 weeks. The right and left submandibular glands volume decreased to 70% and 63% of their initial volumes on average, respectively. The volume of the neck in the radiation fields decreased to 89% of its initial volume on average by the sixth week mainly caused by body weight loss due to acute radiation morbidity. Considerable anatomical change in the radiation filed that will affect dose distribution of the target and organ at risk was observed during radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. J. Med. Invest. 60: 46-51, February, 2013
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  • Ai Kawamura, Tetsuya Tanioka, Toshiko Tada, Beth King, Rozzano C Locsi ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 52-60
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Long-term hospitalization is a problem for psychiatric care in Japan. The purpose of this research was to clarify the demands placed on public health nurses’ (PHN) involved in the discharge of long-term inpatients (LIPs) with mental illness, and their lack of support. A questionnaire was mailed to 516 health centers, and 112 health centers replied. The response rate was 21.7 percent. The mail survey questionnaire was based on original questionnaire developed by the authors. Significant differences were found among collaborative agencies selected as essential for the discharge support project for the LIPs with mental illness. These differences were evident in the following question items on insufficiency of support: “Incompatibility with the policy of the public health center on discharge support”; “Opposition to discharge of a LIPs with mental illness by hospital staff”; and “Shortage of PHN in charge of the discharge support project for the LIPs with mental illness”. It was clarified that the discharge support project required not only the involvement of health and medical welfare personnel but also the cooperation of local human resources such as local residents, neighbor associations, social workers, real-estate agencies and others. J. Med. Invest. 60: 52-60, February, 2013
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  • Yoshihisa Ishiura, Masaki Fujimura, Hiroki Yamamoto, Yasutaka Shiba, N ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 61-65
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    On March 11, 2011, a 9.0-magnitude earthquake struck east Japan, following tsunami. Many people are forced to live in evacuation shelters without enough life-saving drugs. Asthma control for management of health crisis is required, because asthma exacerbation is a major cause of morbidity, can need acute care and results in death. However, it remains obscure what parameter should be used in primary clinic of evacuation shelters. The objective of this study is to elucidate the practical efficacy of asthma assessment tool in primary clinic for victims of this disaster. Asthma control test (ACT), a brief and patient-based tool to evaluate asthma control, was conducted for 17 patients with asthma in evacuation shelters at Tohoku district. Total sum of ACT scores were significantly decreased after this disaster. Significant decreases were observed for the items; “Asthma keeps you from getting much done at work”, “Shortness of breath”, “Asthma symptoms wake you up” and “Patient rating of control”. ACT, an easy and practicable tool, clearly demonstrated the asthma exacerbation in evacuation shelters without the use of lung function testing. ACT may contribute to the management of health crisis not only for this East Japan disaster but also for the other forthcoming unavoidable disasters. J. Med. Invest. 60: 61-65, February, 2013
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  • Kaori Takata, Yoshinobu Tomiyama, Katsuya Tanaka, Shuzo Oshita
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 66-76
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: Hyperkalemia has multimodal effects on myocardial protection during ischemia/reperfusion. The preservation of Na+/K+-ATPase activity induced by hyperkalemia may have critical impact on myocardial protection. Methods: To elucidate the roles of hyperkalemia (16 mM) and Na+/K+-ATPase inhibition (100 µM ouabain) in myocardial protection during simulated ischemia (5 mM NaCN and 5.5 mM 2-deoxyglucose)/reperfusion, we measured loss of membrane integrity and bleb formation using a vital dye calcein AM in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. The control perfusate was switched to treatment solution for 15 min, followed by reperfusion for 30 min. In a second set of experiments, myocardial excitability and diastolic intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) were measured during a 45-min treatment using a calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye fluo-4 AM. Results: Simulated ischemia/reperfusion under ouabain treatment induced loss of membrane integrity, which was suppressed by hyperkalemia. Simulated ischemia/reperfusion induced bleb formation, which was accelerated by ouabain. Hyperkalemia delayed and inhibited the increase in diastolic [Ca2+]i induced by simulated ischemia. Furthermore, hyperkalemia almost completely inhibited the effects of ouabain on the diastolic [Ca2+]i during ischemia. Conclusions: These results suggest that hyperkalemia during ischemia is cardioprotective against ischemia/reperfusion insults and that hyperkalemia inhibits the effects of ouabain during ischemia. J. Med. Invest. 60: 66-76, February, 2013
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  • Shino Yuasa, Harutaka Yamaguchi, Yoshinori Nakanishi, Shingo Kawaminam ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 77-90
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Biological agents represent an important advancement in for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but there is a subset of patients who do not improve despite therapy. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of biological agents for RA and to identify clinical factors that are associated with their response. We studied 98 patients with RA who started an initiating biological agent which was selected from infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab and tociliximab at 4 medical institutions. Etanercept was the most frequently used biological agent followed by infliximab although there was a difference in the selection of the biological agents among medical institutions. We found that etanercept achieved the highest treatment response, remission rate and drug survival rate. A high disease activity in the baseline disease activity score-c-reactive protein (CRP) was shown to be a negative predictor of the treatment response, and high patient global assessment was significantly less likely to achieve a good response. At week 4, decreases in 28 swollen joint counts and CRP were useful as predictors for sustaining the efficacy up to week 48. These data demonstrate that assessments of the disease activity at baseline and the early treatment response may be useful in predicting the efficacy and drug survival rate of biological agents. J. Med. Invest. 60: 77-90, February, 2013
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  • Hidehisa Horiguchi, Sumiyo Yamagata, Zhi Rong Qian, Seiko Kagawa, Naom ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 91-96
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Desmoplastic (scirrhous) invasion and lymph node metastasis are critical for the treatment and prognosis of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. Despite being an anti-angiogenic therapeutic candidate, Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) promotes invasion and metastasis of some carcinomas. To clarify the effect of TSP-1 on invasion and metastasis, we obtained 101 invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast with axillary lymph node resection. All tumors were histologically divided into two categories, carcinomas with, and those with non- /minimal desmoplastic component. Immunohistochemistry for TSP-1 was performed on all primary tumors and axillary lymph nodes with tumor metastasis. Fifty-four (53.5%) of 101 tumors were recognized as positive for TSP-1 in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. Histological study showed that significantly more cancers with desmoplastic components (46/69, 66.7%) manifested TSP-1 expression than did cancers with no- or minimal (less than 20%) desmoplasia (8/32, 25.0%; p<0.001). Axillary lymph node metastasis was significantly higher in TSP-1-positive- (28/54, 51.9%) than TSP-1-negative cancers (11/47, 23.4%; p<0.005). The present study indicates that tumor cells in the desmoplastic component strongly expressed TSP-1 in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and TSP-1 participates in invasion of these tumors. Our findings also suggest that TSP-1 promotes lymph node metastasis and TSP-1 potentially could be a predictive marker for metastasis. J. Med. Invest. 60: 91-96, February, 2013
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  • Yamato Fukuda, Takeshi Soeki, Masataka Sata
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 97-105
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The ratio of peak diastolic early velocity (E) of left ventricular (LV) inflow to peak diastolic longitudinal velocity (e’) of the mitral annulus (E/e’) is thought to reflect LV filling pressure, and tricuspid annulus velocity at systole (s’-T) is thought to reflect right ventricular function. However, it has not been reported on significance of the combined use of E/e’ and (s’-T) to predict outcome of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Over 21 months, beginning in January 2007, we enrolled 65 AMI patients who were measured hemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters by Swan-Ganz (SG) catheterization just after reperfusion therapy and echocardiography immediately after reperfusion therapy. Cardiac index (CI) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) via SG catheter were measured, and routine echocardiographic indices, including E, e’, E/e’, and (s’-T) were determined. In addition, we defined the functional integrated bi-myocardial tissue Doppler (FIT) index as (s’-T)÷E/e’. The relationships between CI, PCWP, and echocardiographic indices were investigated, including FIT index. Moreover, we investigated whether FIT index could predict adverse cardiac events. FIT index was significantly associated with not only CI but also PCWP. In the Cox proportional hazards model, FIT index<1.0 was a significant predictor for adverse outcome of AMI after adjustment for age, Killip class, history of previous coronary revascularization, location of culprit lesion, and LV ejection fraction. The novel index defined as (s’-T)÷E/e’ could be quite useful predictor of prognosis in AMI. J. Med. Invest. 60: 97-105, February, 2013
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  • Takeshi Ishigami, Yasutoshi Hida, Yoshihiro Matsudate, Kazutoshi Murao ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 106-113
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) control a wide range of biological functions; however, their involvement in the pathogenesis of dermatofibroma (DF) and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is currently unknown. In this study, we first confirmed the histological diagnosis by detecting fusion COL1A1-PDGFB transcripts in DFSP, and examined the expression of all FGFRs (FGFR1-4), some of their ligands (FGF1, 2, 9), and forkhead box N1 (FOXN1) as a downstream target of FGFR3 in DF and DFSP by immunohistochemical analysis. Although we failed to detect the expression of FGF1 and FGF9 as specific ligands for FGFR3 in DF, overexpression of FGFR3 and FOXN1 was observed in the epidermal regions of DF, suggesting that the epidermal regions of DF were similar to seborrhoeic keratosis both in terms of histological features and the activation of FGFR3/FOXN1. In addition, strong expression of FGF2 and FGFR4 was observed in the tumor lesions of DF. Expression patterns of FGFR3/FOXN1 and FGF2/FGFR4 in DF were in contrast with those of DFSP. The activation of FGFR signaling pathways may be not only relevant to the pathogenesis of DF, but also very useful in the differential diagnosis of DF and DFSP. J. Med. Invest. 60: 106-113, February, 2013
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  • Susumu Naruse, Toshiaki Hashimoto, Kenji Mori, Yoshimi Tsuda, Mitsue T ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 114-120
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Purpose: Facial expressions hold abundant information and play a central part in communication. In daily life, we must construct amicable interpersonal relationships by communicating through verbal and nonverbal behaviors. While school-age is a period of rapid social growth, few studies exist that study developmental changes in facial expression recognition during this age. This study investigated developmental changes in facial expression recognition by examining observers’ gaze on others’ expressions. Subjects: 87 school-age children from first to sixth grade (41 boys, 46 girls). Method: The Tobii T60 Eye-tracker(Tobii Technologies, Sweden) was used to gauge eye movement during a task of matching pre-instructed emotion words and facial expressions images (neutral, angry, happy, surprised, sad, disgusted) presented on a monitor fixed at a distance of 50 cm. Results: In the task of matching the six facial expression images and emotion words, the mid- and higher-grade children answered more accurately than the lower-grade children in matching four expressions, excluding neutral and happy. For fixation time and fixation count, the lower-grade children scored lower than other grade children, gazing on all facial expressions significantly fewer times and for shorter periods. Conclusion: It is guessed that the stage from lower grades to middle grades is a turning point in facial recognition. J. Med. Invest. 60: 114-120, February, 2013
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  • Ayumi Nose, Hideki Otsuka, Hayato Nose, Yoichi Otomi, Kaori Terazawa, ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 121-126
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of 201Tl-SPECT in differentiating benign from malignant brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Eighty-eight patients (44 males and 44 females) with 58 high-grade (WHO grade III-IV) and 30 low-grade (WHO grade I-II) tumors were evaluated with 201Tl-SPECT. (1) Visual assessment was performed by board-certificated radiologists using 201Tl-SPECT. Tumors were classified in two groups (Tl-positive and Tl-negative) and scored using the five grade evaluation system. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed in the Tl-positive group. (2) Semi-quantitative assessment involved measurement of early and delayed 201Tl uptake, and the retention index (RI) was applied as follows: RI=delayed uptake ratio/early uptake ratio. Three combinations of RI using mean and maximum values of the region of interest were calculated. Results: (1) Seventy-four Tl-positive and 14 Tl-negative tumors. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) estimated by three radiologists exceeded a value of 0.7. The value was greater when estimated by the more experienced radiologist. (2) In all RIs, the difference of RI between high-grade tumors and low-grade tumors was statistically significant. Conclusion: A visual and semi-quantitative assessment using 201Tl-SPECT was found to be useful for differentiating benign from malignant brain tumors. J. Med. Invest. 60: 121-126, February, 2013
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  • Hideki Makino, Yoshinori Aono, Momoyo Azuma, Masami Kishi, Yuki Yokota ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 127-137
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Circulating fibrocytes had been reported to migrate into the injured lungs, and contribute to fibrogenesis via chemokine-chemokine receptor systems including CXCL12-CXCR4 axis. Here we hypothesized that blockade of CXCR4 might inhibit the migration of fibrocytes to the injured lungs and the subsequent pulmonary fibrosis. To explore the antifibrotic effects of blockade of CXCR4, we used a specific antagonist for CXCR4, AMD3100, in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model in mice. Administration of AMD3100 significantly improved the loss of body weight of mice treated with bleomycin, and inhibited the fibrotic lesion in subpleural areas of the lungs. The quantitative analysis demonstrated that treatment with AMD3100 reduced the collagen content and fibrotic score (Aschcroft score) in the lungs. Although AMD3100 did not affect cell classification in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid on day 7, the percentage of lymphocytes was reduced by AMD3100 on day 14. AMD3100 directly inhibited the migration of human fibrocytes in response to CXCL12 in vitro, and reduced the trafficking of fibrocytes into the lungs treated with bleocmycin in vivo. These results suggest that the blockade of CXCR4 might be useful strategy for therapy of patients with pulmonary fibrosis via inhibiting the migration of circulating fibrocytes. J. Med. Invest. 60: 127-137, February, 2013
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  • Atsuko Kayashita, Harue Yamato, Ikuko Yoshida, Kazuyo Matsuzaki, Hiros ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 138-145
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Malnutrition of patients is an important factor of poor prognosis and outcome and long stay in hospital. Nutrition screening is of course necessary for detecting under- and malnutrition. However, appropriate rapid and easy screening tools for only acute and emergent hospitalized patients are not known. In this study, 14 questions composed with reported and new items were prepared and the utility of those questions for detecting malnutrition in novel hospitalized patients was evaluated. Combined questions on disturbance of swallowing, diarrhea and fever, and also on ageing, food intake and history of fall are very important for detecting malnutrition in newly hospitalized patients, although further study will be absolutely required. J. Med. Invest. 60: 138-145, February, 2013
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Case reports
  • Naohiro Ohshita, Katsuya Tanaka, Yoko Sakai, Toshiko Katayama, Yoshino ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 146-148
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Lubag disease is a genetic X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism syndrome afflicting Filipino men. This disease is characterized by dystonia dominating the first 10-15 years of the disorder, which is associated with or replaced by parkinsonian features in later years of life. A 49-year-old man with Lubag disease underwent general anesthesia for deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. Anesthesia was maintained mainly with propofol, remifentanil, rocuronium bromide, and sevoflurane. During magnetic resonance imaging, the patient was anesthetized with midazolam, fentanyl, and rocuronium bromide. The surgery was completed safely using these anesthetic agents. After DBS, some symptoms including involuntary movement improved within 10 days. J. Med. Invest. 60: 146-148, February, 2013
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  • Takenobu Nakagawa, Naomi Sakashita, Koji Ohnishi, Yoshihiro Komohara, ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 149-153
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a rare poorly differentiated carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation showing aggressive clinical behavior. We herein report a case of gallbladder LCNEC, which was difficult to differentiate from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. An imprint cytology was very useful for the final diagnosis in this case. A 56-year-old male with left exophthalmos was admitted to the hospital. Radiological examinations revealed the presence of a left gallbladder tumor with orbital metastasis. The histological diagnosis was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, and intensive chemoradiotherapy was administered. Unfortunately, the patient died of extensive metastases 36 months after the initial onset of symptoms. An autopsy revealed a tumor mass in the gallbladder associated with multiple liver and peritoneal metastases. Imprint cytology of the main tumor revealed cytological features of LCNEC, and additional histological examinations confirmed this diagnosis. Although performing a histological examination is important for making a final diagnosis, imprint cytology is powerful tool for differential diagnosis of LCNEC, especially in patients with carcinoma with poor differentiation. J. Med. Invest. 60: 149-153, February, 2013
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  • Taisuke Nakayama MD, Hajime Kinoshita MD, Mikio Sugano MD, Hirotsugu K ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 154-158
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An extremely rare case with delayed-onset heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is described. A 46-year-old man underwent arch replacement for aortic dissection under cardiopulmonary bypass and initial exposure of unfractionated heparin. In post operative 7 days, persistent atrial fibrillation was occurred, so a continuous infusion of heparin (10000 IU/day) and Vitamine K antagonist (Warfarin) taking was started for preventing thrombosis. By 32 days after the operation, his platelet count had fallen (3×103/µL) and oral hematoma and ecchymoma of bilateral lower legs were occurred. The value of HIT antibodies and the IgG antibody was 2.485 and 1.586 on 32-postoperative day, respectively. Heparin was immediately discontinued, and argatroban administrated. Platelet exceeded above 100×103/µL on 12 days of the therapy. To our knowledge, few cases of delayed-onset severe HIT associated with CPB surgery have been reported in Japan. J. Med. Invest. 60: 154-158, February, 2013
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  • Tomohiro Soga, Shinji Kawahito, Rie Oi, Nami Kakuta, Toshiko Katayama, ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 159-163
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For anesthetic management during renal transplantation, it is necessary to maintain the blood flow and function of the transplanted kidney by performing massive fluid management and stabilizing blood pressure. We report anesthetic management for renal transplantation with a less-invasive circulatory monitoring system (Edwards Life Sciences Co., Ltd., Irvine, California, U.S.A.). In November 2010, renal transplantation was started in our hospital, and performed in 6 patients. In the first patient, fluid/circulatory management was conducted by connecting a standard arterial line and a standard central venous (CV) line. In the second patient, a FloTracTM system and a standard CV line were used. In the third patient, a standard arterial line and a PreSepTM CV Oximetry Catheter were used. In the fourth and fifth patients, a FloTracTM and a PreSepTM were used. In the latest patient, FloTracTM and PreSepTM were connected to an EV1000TM Clinical Platform for fluid/circulatory management. The establishment of high-visibility monitors was useful for evaluating the condition and confirming the effects. As there are marked changes in hemodynamics, the CV pressure, which has been used as a parameter of fluid management, is not reliable in renal failure patients with a high incidence of cardiovascular complications. Advances in noninvasive circulatory monitoring with dynamic indices may improve the safety of anesthetic management during renal transplantation. J. Med. Invest. 60: 159-163, February, 2013
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  • Yusuke Arakawa, Kazuo Yoshioka, Hitomi Kamo, Koichiro Kawano, Takeshi ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 164-168
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 74-year-old male with abdominal pain was admitted to the emergency room in our hospital. The high value of serum amylase was shown in his blood test. The postcontrast computed tomography (CT) showed the huge retroperitoneal tumor with a thin-walled mass occupying most of the part of the right retroperitoneal space. The tumor spread into the soft tissues around the pancreas; as a result, the duodenum was compressed and the pancreas was displaced to the right side. The irregular pancreatic outline, obliterated peripancreatic fatty tissue and fluid in the left anterior pararenal space were revealed, so acute pancreatitis was diagnosed. The diagnostic biopsy of retroperitoneal tumor was done, and the pathological findings of retroperitoneal mass revealed dedifferentiated liposarcoma. The medical treatment against acute pancreatitis was performed firstly. After the patient recovered from that, the surgical resection of the tumor with the right kidney and right adrenal gland was completed successfully. The patient remained well, without any evidence of recurrence three months after surgery. However, the histology showed dedifferentiated liposarcoma; therefore, postoperative regular examination is necessary. J. Med. Invest. 60: 164-168, February, 2013
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  • Shinichiro Yamada, Mitsuo Shimada, Tohru Utsunomiya, Yuji Morine, Sato ...
    2013 Volume 60 Issue 1.2 Pages 169-173
    Published: 2013
    Released: April 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) is associated with the occurrence of biliary cancer due to pancreatobiliary reflux. From the perspective of carcinogenesis, the treatment for PBM is controversial. We herein report a case of hilar cholangiocarcinoma 20 years after the occurrence of gallbladder cancer. A 75-year-old man was referred to our hospital regarding an obstructive jaundice and bile duct tumor. A cholecystectomy was performed for cholelithiasis on this patient 20 years ago, and cancer in situ was detected. Computed tomography (CT) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed a tumor of the portal hepatic region and PBM without dilatation of the bile duct. Adenocarcinoma was detected from bile cytology, and we diagnosed hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Despite the biliary decompression, jaundice was prolonged and the patient passed away. Our case suggests that not only cholecystectomy but also biliary diversion is needed for PBM regardless of the existence of bile duct dilatation. J. Med. Invest. 60: 169-173, February, 2013
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