The Journal of Medical Investigation
Online ISSN : 1349-6867
Print ISSN : 1343-1420
ISSN-L : 1343-1420
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Showing 1-36 articles out of 36 articles from the selected issue
  • Koichi Sairyo, Toru Maeda, Kazuta Yamashita, Fumitake Tezuka, Masatosh ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 1-5
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    It has been reported that Modic change of the lumbar spine endplate includes three types: i.e. . edema or inflammation for type 1, fatty marrow change for type 2 and sclerotic change for type 3. Basically, type 1 Modic change may be related to the chronic low back pain. There are two kinds of the treatment for the type 1 Modic change to heal the pain : the anti-inflammatory drugs, and intra-discal injection of steroid. When the inflammatory change would be intractable, surgical intervention is needed. The gold standard for the surgical intervention is the segmental fusion of the affected level. The fusion surgery may cause the adjacent degeneration ; thus, motion preservation surgery is better, if possible. Our department started the motion preservation full-endoscopic intradiscal debridement surgery for this pathology, since some of the type 1 Modic change may be chronic discitis by P. Acnes. In this paper, we describe the first patient of type 1 Modic change who was successfully treated by the full-endoscopic intra-discal debridement and drainage under the local anesthesia. We named this procedure as transforaminal full-endoscopic disc cleaning surgery (FEDC). Finally, pathology, conservative and surgical intervention of Modic change was discussed. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 1-5, February, 2021

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  • Natalia Mansueto, Cinzia Rotondo, Addolorata Corrado, Francesco Paolo ...
    Type: editorial
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 6-14
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Nailfold video-capillaroscopy (NVC) is a useful diagnostic tool, used to early detect abnormalities in micro-circulation, providing a qualitative description of microvascular anomalies in Raynaud’s phenomenon. NVC role in the diagnosis of Systemic Sclerosis is well known. In other rheumatic conditions such as connective tissue diseases, vasculitis, and arthritis, the NVC anomalies are often included in a scleroderma like pattern. The use of NVC in non-rheumatic diseases (NRD), with remarkable microvascular damage, as diabetes, is not standardized yet, although several research studies are carrying on. The aim of this article is to provide a resume of published results in order to lay the groundwork for the employment of NVC both in the diagnosis and follow up of microvascular complication in NRD. Furthermore, we mention NVC findings in pathologies without well recognize microvascular damages in their pathogenesis : micro-vessels abnormalities may suggest a different point of view. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 6-14, February, 2021

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  • Seiki Tashiro, Tatsuya Tsuji, Hidenori Miyake, Hitomi Kamo, Yuko Sumis ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 15-21
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The prognosis of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is still poor, and the 5-year survival rate in patients undergoing radical surgery (R0) is less than one-third. Since the prognosis depends mainly on tumor factors, so early diagnosis is necessary. To extend the survival time of these patients with a poor prognosis, cases of long-term survival were examined based on the results of our experiences and the literature. It was found that the hepatitis virus was highly involved in the carcinogenesis of ICC, and patients who were infected with hepatitis virus had rather good survival. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 15-21, February, 2021

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  • Yumiko Izaki
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 22-28
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Depression often first develops during adolescence, with its rate sharply increasing after puberty and often running a chronic, recurring course thereafter. The development of depression is associated with difficulties in the lives of adolescents and their families, reduced academic achievement, suicide, and increased socio-economic disadvantage in adulthood. Earlier and more effective interventions for depression in adolescents are required. This review describes the updated etiology and clinical features of adolescent depression, and focuses on appropriate therapeutic strategies to adopt in clinical practice. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 22-28, February, 2021

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  • Tatsuya Nishikawa, Toshitaka Morishima, Yuki Fujii, Sumiyo Okawa, Tomo ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 29-37
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Purpose : Limited data exist about clinically relevant bleeding events related to antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in cancer patients. We investigated the risk factors for clinically relevant bleeding events in patients with cancer after PCI with stent implantation. Patients and Methods : Patients with solid cancer subjected to first PCI were divided into active (n = 45) and non-active cancer groups (n = 44). The active group included non-operable patients on treatment or with metastasis ; the non-active included those already subjected to or for whom radical surgery was planned within 3 months after the index PCI. Results : During a median follow-up of 2.2 years, 11 bleeding events occurred, with only one occurring in the non-active cancer group. Half of them occurred during the dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) period, and the rest occurred during single-antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) period. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly more bleeding events in the active cancer group (p = 0.010). Multivariate Cox regression hazard analysis revealed cancer activity as a significant independent risk factor for bleeding (p = 0.023) ; but not for three-point major adverse cardiovascular events. Conclusion : Clinically relevant bleeding risk after PCI was significantly lower in non-active cancer. Active cancer group had clinically relevant bleeding during both DAPT and SAPT periods. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 29-37, February, 2021

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  • Seiichi Nakano, Eiji Kondo, Hidetaka Iwasaki, Hironori Akizuki, Kazuno ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 38-41
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Objective : An attempt was made to identify characteristic cytokine profiles to distinguish periodic fever with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis syndrome (PFAPAS) from recurrent tonsillitis, of which clinical manifestations are similar to those of PFAPAS in children. Methods : Serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-4 and IFN-γ were measured during febrile episodes in pediatric patients. Results : The levels of IL-6 during febrile episodes were markedly increased above the upper limit of normal ranges in patients with both PFAPAS and recurrent tonsillitis, but there were no significant differences between groups. The levels of IL-4 during febrile episodes in PFAPAS patients were significantly lower than those in recurrent tonsillitis patients. The levels of IFN-γ during febrile episodes in PFAPAS patients were significantly higher than those in recurrent tonsillitis patients. Conclusion : In pediatric patients with PFAPAS, despite an increase of IL-6, IL-4 was suppressed with a marked increase of IFN-γ during febrile episodes. On the contrary, in febrile pediatric patients with recurrent tonsillitis, both IL-6 and IL-4, but not IFN-γ were increased. The characteristic cytokine profiles of IL-6, IL-4 and IFN-γ can be used for differential diagnosis of PFAPAS from recurrent tonsillitis in children in clinical ear, nose and throat (ENT) settings. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 38-41, February, 2021

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  • Narushi Yokota, Masayuki Takahashi, Masaaki Nishitani, Jun Minakuchi, ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 42-47
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    We investigated the long-term outcomes of the Japanese hemodialysis patients with prostate cancer detected by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. Clinical data of 646 male hemodialysis patients aged 55 years or older who started yearly PSA testing in the period from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2012 and were followed until December 31, 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. The median follow-up period was 10.4 years. Nineteen (2.9%) patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer, of whom one patient died of the disease. Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) was selected for primary prostate cancer treatment in 17 (89.5%) of these 19 patients. Of six prostate cancer patients who underwent primary ADT (PADT) and died of other causes, three died of infectious disease, each one died of cardiovascular disease, liver cancer, and chronic renal failure. No significant difference was observed in regard to overall survival between the prostate cancer patients with PADT and non-prostate cancer patients. Prognosis of hemodialysis patients who were diagnosed with prostate cancer during yearly PSA screening examination and mainly treated with ADT was favorable without increasing cardiovascular events. This result indicates that PSA screening may be useful for detection and management of prostate cancer even in hemodialysis patients. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 42-47, February, 2021

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  • Teruhiro Morishita, Michiko Sato, Takafumi Katayama, Nami Sumida, Hiro ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 48-52
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Age-related changes in muscle strength and physical functions, and the association between vitamin D status and skeletal muscle functions were investigated in 36 men (21-90 years old) and 52 women (21-104 years old). Significant ageing-related decreases in several skeletal muscle functions and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were observed in both men and women. Cut-off values for the Timed up and go (TUG) test, walking speed, handgrip strength and Barthel Index (BI) detecting walking difficulties in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were 11.1 sec, 0.60 m / sec, 17.0 kg, and 90.0 in males, and 28.6 sec, 0.43 m / sec, 13.9 kg, and 67.5 in females, respectively. By comparing personal present data of muscle strength with these cut-off values, people can easily understand their process to walking difficulty. Therefore, these results are important and useful to avoid or to delay a handicapped and dependent status by improving the vitamin D level, rehabilitation and nursing care. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 48-52, February, 2021

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  • Chihiro Kawai, Kenji Mori, Tetsuya Tanioka, Feni Betriana, Keiko Mori, ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 53-58
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. Physicians often prescribe methylphenidate (MPH) for children with ADHD for long periods of time. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for evaluating drug effects and improvements in medication adherence in children with ADHD. Subjects were 10 male children diagnosed with ADHD : average age, 9.3 years, and 10 boys with typical development : average age 9.5 years. Children with intellectual disability, autism, and obvious depressive symptoms were excluded. The present study revealed that in the ADHD group, oxy-Hb concentrations in the left and right lateral prefrontal cortex significantly increased during the execution of the Stroop color-word test in both channels when taking MPH. This method was considered to be useful for assessing drug effects on ADHD because NIRS is an objective indicator for evaluating ADHD executive dysfunction and visualizes the activation of frontal lobe function by MPH. A pediatric neurologist explained the results of NIRS while presenting images to the ADHD group, and medication adherence and the drug-taking ratio both markedly improved. Therefore, this therapeutic explanation is an effective strategy for improving medication compliance and adherence among patients. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 53--58, February, 2021

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  • Hitomi Iba, Takaaki Shimohata, Junko Kido, Sho Hatayama, Takashi Ueban ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 59-70
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a foodborne bacterium that causes acute gastroenteritis through the consumption of contaminated, raw, or undercooked seafood. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a well-characterized chloride channel that regulates several other ion channels and transporters to maintain water homeostasis in the gut lumen. Also, CFTR is a main target of bacterial infection-associated diarrhea. Hence, the aim of this study was to clarify the contribution of CFTR in V. parahaemolyticus-induced diarrhea in a mouse model of intestinal loop fluid accumulation, with CFTR inhibitors and a CFTR knockout model. The results indicated that CFTR plays a critical role in fluid accumulation in response to V. parahaemolyticus infection. We also investigated the inflammatory association in CFTR-mediated V. parahaemolyticus-induced fluid secretion with cyclooxygenase inhibitors and found that fluid accumulation was decreased by inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 produced by neutrophils. These findings suggest that V. parahaemolyticus-inducing infiltration and activation of neutrophils also participated in CFTR mediated fluid secretion. This study reveals an important relationship between V. parahaemolyticus-induced diarrhea and inflammation in a mouse model. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 59-70, February, 2021

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  • Masayuki Chuma, Kenshi Takechi, Kenta Yagi, Satoshi Sakaguchi, Hiroshi ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 71-75
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Background : Enforcement of the 2018 Clinical Trials Act (CTA) in Japan resulted in strict and complicated regulations surrounding intervention studies. Few Japan-specific measures have been developed to promote intervention studies in Japan despite concerns about CTA’s negative influence on such studies. Therefore, this study examined the changes in academic investigators’ interest in conducting clinical studies before and after enforcement of the CTA to determine measures to promote specified clinical trials. Methods : We conducted a questionnaire survey with investigators belonging to the Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, before and after enforcement of the CTA. Results : Investigators had lesser interest in intervention studies in the post-questionnaire survey (post) group than in the pre-questionnaire survey (pre) group. Their desire for “project management” was significantly higher in the post-group than in the pre-group. Their desire for “support for preparing documents when conducting specified clinical trials” was significantly higher in the group interested in conducting specified clinical trials than that in the not-interested group. Conclusion : We revealed that investigators were highly interested in “project management” and “support for preparing documents when conducting specified clinical trials” after enforcement of the CTA. Measures for these desires may promote specified clinical trials. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 71-75, February, 2021

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  • Adnan Jassim Mohammed Al-Fartosy, Nadhum Abdulnabi Awad, Sadoun Abbas ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 76-84
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    INTRODUCTION : Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) is the leading reason of all excess death-rate over type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria or end-stage renal disease. This work was aimed to estimate insulin resistance (IR) effect on some markers and trace elements (Selenium, Zinc, Magnesium) levels for early predicting of DN in T2DM patients. METHODS : We conducted a cross-sectional clinical study. Blood and urine samples were collected from 63 subjects with T2DM and 33 healthy controls to assess glucose, insulin, IR, urea, creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), creatinine clearance (CrCl), homocysteine (Hcy), fructosamine (FA), cystatin C (CysC), albumin (Alb), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), 8-hydroxy-2`-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and trace elements levels. Data were collected using a questionnaire that was filled out by specialized doctors. RESULTS : Compared with controls, the results revealed that T2DM patients with or without DN had significant increases in glucose, insulin, IR, urea, creatinine, Hcy, FA, CysC, Alb, NGAL and 8-OHdG and significant decreases in GFR, CrCl and trace elements levels. Body mass index (BMI) had no changes. CONCLUSION : Uncontrolled T2DM was associated with BMI, IR and physical activity in which elevated Hcy, FA, CysC, Alb, NGAL and 8-OHdG levels and decreased trace elements levels may be used as early clinical markers of DN. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 76-84, February, 2021

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  • Chigusa Uchiumi, Hiroshi Kato, Motohiro Ishida, Masahito Nakataki, Tet ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 85-89
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Objective : The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between peritraumatic reactions, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and pain in people injured in train disasters. Methods : The participants were injured in a train crash in Japan that left more than 100 dead. There were 218 participants in the analysis, with a mean age of 37.50 ± 14.67 years. Peritraumatic reactions were assessed using the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory. PTSD symptoms were evaluated using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised Japanese-language version. Pain was measured using the Visual Analog Scale. Results : Peritraumatic reactions did not directly affect PTSD symptoms but were found to be associated via latent variables. Regarding pain and PTSD symptoms, intrusive memories were more associated with pain than other symptoms were. There was an associative path from intrusion to pain, but no such path from pain to intrusion. Conclusions : Our results suggest that a therapeutic approach to intrusion may be effective in ameliorating the pain caused by injury. Future research should examine integrated treatment approaches for both PTSD and pain, rather than just for aspects of PTSD. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 85-89, February, 2021

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  • Yuichi Takayama, Yuji Kaneoka, Atsuyuki Maeda, Takamasa Takahashi, Mun ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 90-95
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Purpose To evaluate the perioperative symptoms of gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System Revised Japanese version (ESAS-r-J), which is a nine-item visual analogue scale to rate patient symptoms. Methods Between February 2015 and March 2017, 246 patients completed the ESAS-r-J before and after gastrectomy. We evaluated the changes in the prevalence and score of each ESAS-r-J item before and after gastrectomy. In addition, we compared them after gastrectomy between patients who underwent the different approaches. Results Before gastrectomy, anxiety and well-being were the most prevalent items (80%), followed by depression (45%). After gastrectomy, well-being was the most prevalent item (87%), followed by pain (68%). The prevalence of anxiety decreased from 80% to 59% (P = 0.002). The depression and anxiety scores decreased from 1.6 to 1.1 (P < 0.001) and from 2.6 to 1.7 (P = 0.002), respectively. The total score was higher in patients who underwent open surgery than in patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery (16.9 vs 12.9 ; P = 0.031). Conclusions After gastrectomy, psychological symptoms such as depression and anxiety improved despite more physical complaints than before gastrectomy. The laparoscopy was less invasive. It is very important to take care of psychological aspects before gastrectomy. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 90-95, February, 2021

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  • Takayoshi Shinya, Yoichi Otomi, Toshihiko Nishisho, Bettina Beuthien-B ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 96-104
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    We aimed to assess the differential diagnostic efficacy of dynamic F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET / CT) and to evaluate the appropriate scan timings for diagnosis of musculoskeletal lesions (MSLs). Dynamic scans (5–15 [phase 1], 15–25 [phase 2], and 25–35 [phase 3] min after F-18 FDG injection) and dual-time-point scans (1 and 2 h after injection) were acquired for 23 MSLs [4 benign MSLs (BMSLs). 10 primary malignant musculoskeletal tumors (PMMSTs), and 9 metastatic musculoskeletal tumors (MMSTs)]. We compared the maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and corresponding retention indices for dynamic (RI-SUVdyn) and dual-time-point (RI-SUVdual) scans and evaluated diagnostic efficacy using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. The SUVmax gradually decreased or was almost identical with minimal fluctuation in 3 BMSLs and 1 PMMST. SUVmax increased over time after phase 2 in 18 malignant MSLs (MMSLs). There were significant differences in SUVmax (for all time phases) and RI-SUV dual between BMSLs and MMSLs and between PMMSTs and MMSTs. In the ROC analyses, the areas under the curve for SUV in phases 2 and 3 were highest for differentiating BMSLs from MMSLs and PMMSTs from MMSTs, respectively. Dynamic F-18 FDG PET / CT is valuable for diagnosis of musculoskeletal lesions. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 96-104, February, 2021

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  • Masashi Miyoshi, Yusuke Inoue, Mai Nishioka, Akishige Ikegame, Takayuk ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 105-111
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Background : Presepsin (P-SEP) is a highly specific sepsis marker, and its fluctuation with respect to advanced renal impairment or sample agitation has not been fully investigated. We evaluated several renal function-corrected P-SEP indices to establish a simple index and its reference range. Methods : Blood samples for P-SEP measurement were collected with minimal agitation. P-SEP levels were measured using the rapid automated immunoanalyzer “PATHFAST.” This study included 85 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, 65 healthy volunteers, and 4 sepsis patients. Results : Patients stratified by estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) had significantly higher P-SEP levels for CKD stage G3, especially the advanced GFR stage. We evaluated presepsin / creatinine (P-SEP / CRE) and P-SEP / eGFR ratios as possible indices for renal function. The P-SEP / CRE ratio exhibited no increase correlating with the GFR stage and was identical in the normal and CKD groups ;  P-SEP / eGFR decreased if GFR stage worsened. The P-SEP / CRE ratio became significantly higher in sepsis patients and was a more useful index with a reference range of 67–263. Conclusions : P-SEP levels were inversely correlated with renal function, indicating the necessity to consider the influence of renal impairment in CKD patients. The P-SEP / CRE ratio is helpful for sepsis diagnosis, even in patients with renal impairment. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 105-111, February, 2021

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  • Mayumi Yano, Arisa Inoue, Akiyo Toda, Michiko Takahashi, Makoto Usami, ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 112-118
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Background & aims : We investigated the contributing factors of hyponatremia in patients on nutrition support using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Methods : Thirty patients administered enteral or parenteral nutrition support for at least 72 hours were studied. We collected nutritional and electrolyte intake, serum biochemical parameters, and body composition measured by BIA. Patients were classified into two groups according to their serum sodium levels : (1) Normanatremia group, 135–145 mEq / L (n = 18) and (2) Hyponatremia group, less than 135 mEq / L (n = 12), and their characteristics were analyzed. Results : There were no significant differences between the Normonatremia and Hyponatremia groups in terms of energy, protein, and sodium intake. Serum biochemical parameters other than serum sodium and chloride levels were comparable between the two groups. On the other hand, the ratio of extracellular water to total body water (ECW / TBW) obtained by BIA was significantly higher in the Hyponatremia group than in the Normonatremia group. Further, an elevated ECW / TBW significantly and negatively correlated with serum albumin level. Conclusions : Regardless of sodium intake, higher ECW / TBW was associated with hyponatremia in patients on nutrition support. ECW / TBW may be an important clinical parameter relevant to the nutritional care of hyponatremia. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 112-118, February, 2021

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  • Nobuhiro Nakazawa, Makoto Sohda, Kyoichi Ogata, Akihiko Sano, Makoto S ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 119-124
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Aim : We investigated whether preoperative or postoperative inflammatory markers and psoas muscle index (PMI), and their change after surgery, could predict postoperative recurrence in gastric cancer (GC). Methods : Thirty-five patients who underwent curative gastrectomy for pStage II and III GC were retrospectively reviewed. The relationship between neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), and PMI, as well as postoperative recurrence, was analyzed presurgery and at 6 months after surgery. Results : In the preoperative data, there was a significant association between postoperative recurrence and high NLR, low total protein, low albumin, low PNI, and high GPS. In the data from 6 months after surgery, there was a significant association between postoperative recurrence and high NLR, high C-reactive protein, and high GPS. The reduction in PMI at 6 months after surgery relative to preoperative data was significantly greater in the cases with recurrence than in those without recurrence. No patients whose PMI increased compared with presurgery had recurrence. Conclusions : The postoperative reduction in PMI at 6 months after surgery relative to presurgery could be a predictive marker of recurrence after curative gastrectomy for patients with pStage II and III GC. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 119-124, February, 2021

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  • Sayaka Yamashita, Hiroaki Tanaka, Takakiyo Tatsumichi, Kazunori Yama ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 125-128
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as afatinib are used for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and show varying efficacy depending on EGFR gene mutation. Few studies have examined the relationship between EGFR gene mutations and the adverse events of afatinib in NSCLC. This retrospective study included 32 Japanese patients with NSCLC with EGFR gene mutation who were treated with afatinib between May 2014 and August 2018 at Kagawa University Hospital. Among the 32 Japanese patients with NSCLC treated with afatinib, 19 patients were positive for exon 19 deletion mutation (Del 19) and 13 patients were negative for Del 19. The incidence of grade ≥ 2 skin rash was slightly higher in patients positive for Del 19 (42.1% vs. 7.7%, P = 0.050). No significant differences were detected in other adverse events between the two patient groups. Patients positive for Del 19 also showed significantly longer median progression-free survival (288 vs. 84 days, P = 0.049). Our study indicates a higher incidence of skin rash associated with afatinib treatment in Japanese patients with NSCLC positive for Del 19 compared with patients without Del 19. The Del 19 positive patient group also showed better progression-free survival. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 125-128, February, 2021

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  • Makoto Sohda, Tomonori Yoshida, Nobhiro Nakazawa, Yasunari Ubukata, Ke ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 129-135
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Background : With regard to the recurrence of esophageal cancer after surgery, the prognosis has improved with the progress of multimodal perioperative treatment. In this study, the recurrence pattern, treatment method, and prognosis of recurrent cases following esophageal cancer surgery were retrospectively examined. Materials and Methods : Three hundred seven patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and others were enrolled in the study. With respect to clinicopathologic factors and recurrence patterns, recurrence risk factors, recurrence period, treatment for recurrence, and prognosis were investigated.

    Results : Ninety two percent of all recurrent cases were observed within two years after radical esophagectomy. Locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence, and mixed recurrence were observed in 38 (35%), 56 (51%), and 16 (14%) cases, respectively. Patients with lymph node metastasis showed a significantly longer survival in comparison to those with metastasis to other organs (p = 0.0032). When analyzed using the treatment method, patients who underwent surgery (only surgery or additional postoperative chemotherapy) exhibited better survival in comparison to those who underwent other treatments. Discussion : Detailed and strict follow-up within two years are necessary in cases with deeper than muscular invasion, cases with extensive lymph node metastasis, or cases with lymphatic or vascular invasion. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 129-135, February, 2021

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  • Toshinor Sakai, Hiroaki Manabe, Tsuyoshi Goto, Kosuke Sugiura, Fumitak ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 136-139
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Purpose : To analyze extraosseous signal changes (ESCs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in pediatric patients with stress fractures occurring in the lamina. Methods : This study was a retrospective review of 69 consecutive pediatric patients with stress fractures occurring in the lamina. We analyzed MRI scans obtained at the first presentation. Results : We used mainly axial short tau inversion recovery images acquired through the pedicle of these 84 fracture sites to identify the ESCs. These were then divided into three groups: “invisible” when no ESC was detected, “periosteal” for ESC seen on only the dorsal side of the lamina, and “perimuscular” for ESC distinctly spread around / in the paravertebral muscles. In total, 78 (92.9%) fracture sites showed ESCs on the dorsal side of the lamina among which 72 ESCs were located on only the “dorsal” side, while 6 ESCs were on the ventral side against the transverse process. Conclusion : ESCs on MRI were detected in more than 90% of patients before stress fracture became apparent in the lamina, which was considered similar to findings of periosteal thickening / edema detected at the onset of stress fracture in long bone. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 136-139, February, 2021

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  • Masami Yoshioka, Yuichiro Kawashima, Yoshihiko Noma, Makoto Fukui, Shi ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 140-147
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Objective : The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between diabetes-related indicators and oral health behavior among patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods : Seventy-four outpatients were included. We administered a questionnaire and divided the patients into two groups according to oral health behavior and eating habits. We then compared diabetes-related clinical records between the groups and performed logistic regression analysis. Results : Participants who brushed their teeth before bedtime every night had lower BMIs than those who did not. Participants who reported eating slowly and chewing well every day had significantly lower HbA1c than their counterparts. Participants who reported gum bleeding had significantly higher LDL-cholesterol than their counterparts. Binominal logistic regression analysis revealed that BMI < 25 was associated with not brushing teeth before bedtime every night, HbA1c < 7.5 with not eating slowly or chewing well every day, and LDL-cholesterol < 120 with gum bleeding (odds ratio : 0.140, 95% confidence interval : 0.036–0.540 ; OR : 0.085, 95% CI : 0.010–0.736, OR : 0.275, 95% CI : 0.077–0.979, respectively). Conclusions : Our findings suggest that toothbrushing before bedtime every night is associated with reduced risk of obesity and that eating slowly and chewing well are advantageous for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    J. Med. Invest. 68 : 140-147, February, 2021

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  • Chise Ueoka, Masahito Nakataki, Yoshinori Ueoka, Atsuko Miyazaki, Saki ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 148-153
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The psychological state and changes over time of cancer patients in the active treatment stage were classified into emotions by the speech and behavior of the patient described in the medical record article of the cancer psychological interview record, and the analysis of the “emotional state map” was attempted. In all cases, positive / negative emotions were mixed and appeared with variation, but a relatively large number of positive emotions, including <joy>, <relief>, and <liking>, were manifested, and the same was true in patients who experienced stressful treatment events. In the background, the existence of appropriate support from medical professionals and psychological characteristics peculiar to the stage of active treatment was inferred, such as the active treatment of the target patient, the hospitalization environment in which mental and physical pain promptly appealed to medical professionals, and the influence of psychological interviews. Cancer patients during active treatment perceived and expressed changes in the body and pain caused by the disease, and after responses from medical professionals and family members, they were conscious of their physical condition and emotions. It is suggested that this analysis method helps to objectively understand and explain the invisible and ever-changing psychological state of cancer patients in the active treatment stage. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 148-153, February, 2021

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  • Ryo Kanamura, Motoyuki Suzuki, Shinji Otozai, Tadashi Yoshii, Hidehiko ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 154-158
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    To predict occult nodal metastasis in clinical N0 patients with tongue cancer, we developed combined index (CI) : SUVmax of the largest lymph node in PET / CT by weighting coefficient plus its maximum minor axis (< 10 mm) in contrast-enhanced CT (CECT). In this retrospective study, 57 clinical N0 patients with tongue cancer, who underwent elective supraomohyoid neck dissection at cervical levels of I-III were enrolled. The cutoff value of SUVmax of 2.0 obtained using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis predicted the postoperative positive cervical levels containing metastatic lymph nodes from clinical N0 cervical levels in tongue cancer patients with a sensitivity of 54.5% and a specificity of 78.2%. The cutoff value of CI with weighting coefficient of 1.5 obtained using ROC analysis was 9.8 at the maximum area under the curve of 0.750. The cutoff value of 9.8 predicted the postoperative positive cervical levels containing metastatic lymph nodes from clinical N0 cervical levels in tongue cancer patients with a sensitivity of 68.2% and a specificity of 81.5%. These findings suggest that CI of functional PET / CT and morphological CECT components might improve the diagnostic performance of occult nodal metastasis to select clinical N0 patients with tongue cancer preferable for elective neck dissection. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 154-158, February, 2021

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  • Takuya Takashima, Nobuto Nakanishi, Yuta Arai, Jun Oto
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 159-164
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Background : Diaphragm dysfunction is a serious problem. However, a few management techniques exist for diaphragm dysfunction. Methods : Adult patients treated with high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in the intensive care unit were included in this study. The diaphragm function was evaluated using ultrasound measurement of thickening fraction before and after HFNC liberation. Normal diaphragm contraction was defined as thickening fraction ≥ 15% without HFNC, whereas decreased or paradoxical diaphragm contractions were 0%–15% or < 0%, respectively. Results : Forty patients were enrolled, and 16 (40%) had normal diaphragm contraction, whereas 19 (48%) or 5 (13%) had decreased or paradoxical diaphragm contractions, respectively. Thickening fraction increased after HFNC liberation (27.0% ± 25.7% vs. 38.8% ± 34.5%,  p = 0.03 in HFNC vs. no HFNC) in patients without diaphragm dysfunction. In patients with decreased diaphragm contraction, thickening fraction did not change with or without HFNC (8.9% ± 11.7% vs. 6.7% ± 5.2%,  p = 0.35), whereas paradoxical contraction decreased with HFNC (1.0% ± 10.2% vs. –10.3% ± 2.7%,  p = 0.04) in patients with paradoxical diaphragm contraction. Conclusions : The work of breathing decreased with HFNC in patients without diaphragm dysfunction, but did not decrease in patients with decreased diaphragm contraction. Paradoxical diaphragm contraction decreased with HFNC. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 159-164, February, 2021

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  • Hideya Kashihara, Mitsuo Shimada, Kozo Yoshikawa, Jun Higashijima, Tak ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 165-169
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Background : The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of obesity and the usefulness of a pre-operative weight loss program (PWLP) for obese patients undergoing laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) for gastric cancer (GC). Materials and Methods : Study1 : 219 patients who underwent laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG) for GC were divided into 2 groups : body mass index (BMI) ≧ 28 and BMI < 28kg / m2. The influence of BMI in LG surgery was investigated. Study2 : The BMI ≧ 28 kg / m2 patients with a planned LG (n = 8) undertook a PWLP including calorie restriction and exercise. The effects of this program were evaluated. Results : Study1 :  The BMI ≧ 28kg / m2 group showed significantly longer operation times, more blood loss and a higher frequency of post-operative complications than that of the BMI < 28kg / m2 group. Study 2 : The patients achieved a weight loss of 4.2%. The visceral fat area (VFA) was significantly decreased by 10.6%, whereas skeletal muscle mass was unaffected. The PWLP group showed shorter operation times, less blood loss and a lower frequency of post-operative complications compared with that of the BMI ≧ 28kg / m2 group. Conclusion : Obesity is an important risk factor and a pre-operative weight loss program is useful for obese patients undergoing a LG. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 165-169, February, 2021

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  • Keisuke Kido, Naoko Tachibana
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 170-174
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Study Objectives : Although the full-night continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration (fnPT) has been recognized as the gold standard for determining an optimal therapeutic pressure for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment, it is labor-intensive, time-consuming because it requires overnight polysomnography attended by well-experienced sleep technologists. The aim of this study is to develop a practical and feasible alternative titration method. Methods : We assessed demographic data and diagnostic polysomnographic parameters, time spent in CPAP titration, CPAP efficacy and long-term adherence of the two groups of our OSA patients who had received CPAP titration either by fnPT (n = 46) or by afternoon CPAP titration (aPT, n = 22). Main results : Mean total recording time of aPT was significantly shorter than that by fnPT (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in mean residual apnea hypopnea index (AHI) on treatment, percent days with device usage, cumulative device usage hours during the 360 days, average device usage hours per day (360 days, days used), and percent of days with device usage ≥ 4 hours during the 360 days after starting CPAP treatment between the two groups. Conclusions : Our study demonstrated that aPT was feasible procedure as an alternative to fnPT. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 170-174, February, 2021

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  • Shoji Fukuta, Keizo Wada, Kosaku Higashino, Koichi Sairyo, Yoshihiro T ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 175-180
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal position of the baseplate on the small glenoid of female Japanese. Two sets of 3D scapular models were made according to the CT data of 7 female cadavers. We set two scenarios of the baseplate placement : A and B. In scenario A, the baseplate was placed on the glenoid face centrally in the anteroposterior direction. In scenario B, the baseplate was implanted at the point where the baseplate post was contained within the glenoid vault. Whether or not the baseplate post perforated the scapular neck was recorded. In scenario A, the central post penetrated the scapular neck posteriorly in 5 scapulae. In scenario B, the average distances from the guide pin position to the anterior glenoid rim was 9.7 ± 1.7 mm and the optimal position of the guide pin was 1.9 ± 1.7 mm anterior from the glenoid center. The central post was contained within the scapula without breakage of the cortex. This study demonstrated that shifting the center of the baseplate slightly anterior to the anatomic center is necessary to avoid perforation of the scapular neck in small female Japanese. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 175-180, February, 2021

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  • Yoichi Otomi, Hideki Otsuka, Nahomi Shono, Hajime Onishi, Ryota Mitsuh ...
    Type: review-article
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 181-185
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Purpose : To investigate whether or not the physiological brain and liver FDG uptake are decreased in patients with highly accelerated glycolysis lesions. Methods : We retrospectively analyzed 51 patients with malignant lymphoma. We compared the FDG uptake in the brain and liver of the patients with that in a control group. In 24 patients with a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) to treatment, we compared the brain and liver uptake before and after treatment. Results : The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and total glycolytic volume (TGV) of the brain as well as the SUVmax and mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) of the liver in malignant lymphoma patients were 13.1 ± 2.3, 7386.3 ± 1918.4, 3.2 ± 0.5, and 2.3 ± 0.4, respectively ; in the control group, these values were 14.9 ± 2.4, 8566.2 ± 1659.5, 3.4 ± 0.4, and 2.5 ± 0.3, respectively. The SUVmax and TGV of the brain and the SUVmean of the liver in malignant lymphoma patients were significantly lower than the control group. The SUVmax and TGV of the brain after treatment were significantly higher than before treatment. Both the SUVmax and SUVmean of liver after treatment were higher than before treatment, but not significant. Conclusion : A decreased physiological brain and liver FDG uptake is caused by highly accelerated lesion glycolysis. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 181-185, February, 2021

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  • Ashish Suthar, Kiminori Yukata, Yutaka Suetomi, Kazuhiro Yamazaki, Tak ...
    Type: case-report
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 186-188
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Objective : Only a few cases of insufficiency fractures of the tibial plateau following bisphosphonate use have been reported. The authors report a case with bisphosphonate (BP) -related atypical insufficiency fracture of tibial plateau, which developed delayed union. Patient : A 65-year-old Japanese woman presented with left knee pain without any trauma. She had a 5-year history of risedronate use for primary osteoporosis. Initial X-rays were unremarkable, but magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed an insufficiency fracture at the left tibial plateau at 3 weeks after the initial visit. Risedronate treatment was stopped because we diagnosed her with a BP-related atypical insufficiency fracture of the tibial plateau. She was treated with rest, a lateral wedge insole and protective weight-bearing with a T-cane for 3 months. Result : At 3-month follow-up, the patient still had a pain and a delayed healing on radiographs. Six months later, X-rays showed that the fracture site had a sclerotic change, but MRI revealed delayed union. At 8-month follow-up, the fracture was healed without any symptoms. Conclusion : All clinicians need to be aware of the delayed healing of atypical insufficiency fracture related with prolonged BP use. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 186-188, February, 2021

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  • Akira Takashima, Shusuke Yagi, Koji Yamaguchi, Kiyoe Kurahashi, Yuko K ...
    Type: case-report
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 189-191
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The patient with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) shows low serum levels of androgen, which is a group of sex hormones including testosterone, caused by the decreased gonadotropin release in the hypothalamus. Recent reports showed androgens exert protective effects against insulin resistance or atherosclerotic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus or coronary artery disease. However, whether the juvenile hypogonadism affects the diabetes or cardiovascular disease is unclear. We report a case of a middle-aged man with congenital HH who had severe coronary artery disease complicated with metabolic disorders. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 189-191, February, 2021

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  • Tomoo Kishaba, Akiko Maeda, Shou Fukuoka, Toru Imai, Shunichi Takakura ...
    Type: case-report
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 192-195
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This report presents a case of a 74-year-old man who showed dramatic therapeutic response to treatment of coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19) pneumonia. He reported four-day history of sustained fever and acute progressive dyspnea. He developed severe respiratory failure, underwent urgent endotracheal intubation and showed marked elevation of inflammatory and coagulation markers such as c-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and D-dimer. Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated diffuse consolidation and ground glass opacity (GGO). We diagnosed critical COVID-19 pneumonia with detailed sick contact history and naso-pharyngeal swab of a reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay testing. He received anti-viral drug, anti-interleukin (IL-6) receptor antagonist and intravenous methylprednisolone. After commencing combined intensive therapy, he showed dramatic improvement of clinical condition, serum biomarkers and radiological findings. Early diagnosis and rapid critical care management may provide meaningful clinical benefit even if severe case. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 192-195, February, 2021

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  • Mamiko Takahashi, Ryohei Sumitani, Taiki Hori, Jumpei Murai, Shiyori K ...
    Type: case-report
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 196-201
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The prognosis of relapsed or refractory lymphoma with central nervous system (CNS) involvement remains poor because of the lack of anticancer drugs with sufficient CNS penetration. [Case 1] A 65-year-old man was diagnosed with Stage IV mantle cell lymphoma. After two courses of chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) collection, urinary retention with fever developed. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed leptomeningeal involvement, which was refractory to high-dose methotrexate therapy. Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (ASCT) was performed, followed by intravenous busulfan (ivBU), cyclophosphamide, and etoposide ; thereafter, no relapse has been detected for over six years. [Case 2] A 40-year-old woman with right lower hemiplegia was diagnosed with primary CNS lymphoma. Although four courses of high-dose methotrexate therapy were administered, the cerebral tumor increased in size. HSCs were collected after methotrexate therapy, and ASCT was performed in addition to conditioning using ivBU, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide, followed by whole-brain and local boost irradiation. She achieved complete remission, but relapsed two years after ASCT. High-dose ivBU-containing conditioning regimens with ASCT may be useful for refractory B-cell lymphoma with CNS involvement. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 196-201, February, 2021

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  • Toyoaki Ohbuchi, Shohei Shimajiri, Yuki Kawamura, Yuma Koga, Toshiyuki ...
    Type: case-report
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 202-204
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Actinomycosis is an infection caused by anaerobic bacteria, primarily from the genus Actinomyces, which normally colonize the several regions including the mouth. Disruption of mucosa may lead to infection of virtually any site, but reports of involvement of the sinuses are rare. We report a case of an actinomycosis infection in the unilateral maxillary sinus. A 47-year-old female visited our hospital with a complaint of mild pain of left buccal region. Computed tomography (CT) revealed that the left maxillary and anterior ethmoidal sinus cavities were opacified along with a calcified fragment located close to the natural ostium. Thus, we provisionally diagnosed as a fungal sinusitis. She underwent trans-nasal endoscopic sinus surgery. The sinuses were opened and the caseous material was removed. The histopathological examination suggested an actinomycosis, but not fungal, infection. The patient’s postoperative course was uneventful. No evidence of recurrence has been seen over the 30 months of the postoperative follow-up period. In case of the aggressive actinomycotic sinusitis, extension into the adjacent organs could be occurred. We should be aware that sinusitis of actinomycosis infection could progress in patients with risk factors such as diabetes and immunodeficiency. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 202-204, February, 2021

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  • Naoki Miyamoto, Seiya Inoue, Takeshi Nishino, Masakazu Goto, Takahiro ...
    Type: case-report
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 205-208
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this report, we describe a rare case of vagus nerve schwannoma associated with esophageal cancer. A 70-year-old man visited our hospital complaining of worsening dysphagia. His upper gastrointenstinal endoscopy revealed a mass in the esophagus. A contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography also detected a 15 mm nodule attached to the tracheal membrane. This nodule was diagnosed as a metastatic lymph node. Although the primary tumor reduced after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the nodule remained intact ; it showed fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation on positron emission tomography. We had a clinical diagnosis of stage III after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and underwent surgery. Intraoperatively, the nodule could not be detached from the right vagus nerve ; therefore, we excised the nodule along with the adjacent vagus nerve. The nodule was pathologically diagnosed as a vagus schwannoma. The nodule was not a regional lymph node metastasis of esophageal cancer. His postoperative course was uneventful, and he is currently undergoing outpatient follow-up without recurrence. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 205-208, February, 2021

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  • Hiroki Yonezawa, Ryosuke Kawanishi, Hideto Sasaki, Yohei Sogabe, Kenta ...
    Type: case-report
    2021 Volume 68 Issue 1.2 Pages 209-212
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Here, we report two cases involving a neonate and child in which a slip joint section was used to thread a Fogarty catheter into the endotracheal tube for one-lung ventilation (OLV). Both the neonate and infant required OLV, and were placed under general anesthesia. A Fogarty catheter was used for OLV. The Fogarty catheter was passed into the intraluminal side of the endotracheal tube through a slip joint section. OLV was maintained successfully without severe air leakage or Fogarty catheter displacement. The neonate had been intubated pre-operatively with a 3.5-mm inner diameter endotracheal tube, and we used that tube. These cases indicate that the technique can be applied to pre-operatively intubated patients and does not require surgeons to exchange endotracheal tubes. Use of the slip joint section technique facilitates Fogarty catheter fixation without additional dead space. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 209-212, February, 2021

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