In this review, we focus on findings obtained with biophysic techniques, Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and phosphorus-31 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (31P solid-state NMR) spectroscopy, which may allow us to evaluate bone quality and to predict bone strength. FTIR measures the absorption energy that produces an increase in the vibrational or rotational energy of atoms or groups of atoms within the molecule. FTIR spectroscopy allows us to examine the relative amount of minerals and matrix content and the arrangement of apatite and organic matrix. FTIR spectroscopy should become an important tool, because the relative amount of minerals and the arrangement of apatite and organic matrix could be a measure for evaluating bone quality. 31P solid-state NMR spectroscopy is useful for evaluating the quality of bone and predicting bone strength by calculating the spine-lattice relaxation time (T1) of bone. 31P solid-state NMR imaging can be used to measure quantitatively the mass of hydroxyapatite. The T1 relaxation time of both bone and deficient hydroxyapatite was much longer than that of pure hydroxyapatite. T1 relaxation time is one of the promising indices of bone quality.
Stress is a pervasive factor in everyday life that critically affects development and functioning. Severe and prolonged stress exposure impairs homeostatic mechanisms, particularly associated with the onset of depressive illness. Brain food is aimed at preventing as well as treating a growing number of stress-related mental disorders. Some topics on the association of stress and nutrition is reviewed. (1) An increased activity of serotonergic neurons in the brain is an established consequence of stress. An increase in brain tryptophan levels on the order of that produced by eating a carbohydrate-rich/protein-poor meal causes parallel increases in the amounts of serotonin released into synapses. (2) Eating is thought to be suppressed during stress, due to anorectic effects of corticotrophin releasing hormone, and increased during recovery from stress, due to appetite stimulating effects of residual cortisol. (3) A strong inverse association between coffee intake and risk of suicide. (4) Night eating syndrome has been found to occur during periods of stress and is associated with poor results at attempts to lose weight and disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. (5) Dietary antioxidants present in fruits and vegetables may improve cognitive function. Therefore, it is concluded that the establishment of functional foods that correctly regulate stress response must be firmly based upon scientific knowledge and legal regulation.
The p16INK4a tumor suppressor protein functions as an inhibitor of CDK4 and CDK6, the D-type cyclin-dependent kinases that initiate the phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein, RB. Thus, p16INK4a has the capacity to arrest cells in the G1-phase of the cell cycle and its probable physiological role is in the implementation of irreversible growth arrest termed cellular senescence. Cellular senescence is a state of permanent growth arrest that can be induced by a variety of stresses such as DNA-damage and aberrant mitogenic signaling in human primary cells. In contrast to normal cells, the function of the p16INK4a gene or its downstream mediators is frequently deregulated in many types of human cancers, illustrating the importance of cellular senescence in tumor suppression. Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms that direct cellular senescence and reveal its potential for tumor suppression.
In the last 20 years the average change in BMI among Japanese youth is minimal, but significant changes appear when the categories of overweight/obesity and underweight are investigated within gender. Now intervention programs for Japanese youth on weight management need to be developed. To address the issue, there are a series of steps that could be undertaken utilizing theory of behavior change. Using the Transtheoretical Model-Stages of Change as the health promotion theory an intervention could be developed that would tailor messages to the level of the stage of readiness to weight change that exists among youth. Different aspects of the intervention could be developed and targeted to groups of youth by their needs. To assist with planning and development of the intervention principles of Intervention Mapping could be used to guide development using data from a needs assessment survey to: a) determine youths’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about body size, b) determine youth’s barriers to change in body size, c) determine parental knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about body size, d) determine parental barriers to change in youth body size, e) determine the prevalence of health problems from low and high BMI of young females and males, f) determine which youth are at risk-rural/urban areas, socioeconomic status.
The benefits of multi-detector row CT (MDCT) relative to single-detector row helical CT are considerable. Multi-detector row CT allows shorter acquisition times, greater coverage, and superior image resolution. These factors substantially increase the diagnostic accuracy of the examination. Three-dimensional (3D) volume data from MDCT provides various unique applications on thoracic diseases. These includes isotropic viewings, use of multiplanar reformation (MPR), maximum and minimum intensity projections (MIP and minIP), and volume rendering performed from external and internal perspectives allowing the user to “fly around” and “fly through” the structures. Recent advances in 3D volume rendering put real-time, interactive virtual reality guidance of the procedures such as bronchoscopy and surgery into practice.
Urban areas often have more allergy than rural areas. Dietary patterns and parasite infection have been suggested as possible related factors. This study evaluated the prevalence of allergy in school children in one rural and suburban area of Vietnam where parasite infection is common. A total of 195 children aged 9 to 13 years old completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided blood and stool samples for analysis. Nutritional status, dietary intake and parasite infection were determined in all participants. Allergy was more common in girls (10.7% vs. 7.6%), suburban children (11.8% vs. 6.9%), children with weight-for-age (16.7% vs. 6.0%) and height-for-age (14.8% vs. 4.9%) in the 10th to 75th percentile compared to <3rd percentile, and in children without trichuriasis compared to light trichuriasis (12.5% vs. 9.3%), although none of these comparisons were statistically significant. Logistic regression adjusted for sex, age and area of residence revealed no association between allergy and nutritional status, food intake or parasite infection. Intake of riboflavin, however, was negatively associated with allergy (OR=0.00, 95% CI:0.00-0.65, p=0.038). In conclusion, we were unable to detect any association between allergy and nutritional status, diet, or parasite infection. However, in a population with high undernutrition and parasite infection, the prevalence of allergy was low and the extremely low intake of riboflavin was associated with a higher risk of allergy.
Background. The allogeneic islets transplantation is an ideal therapeutic strategy for patients with diabetes mellitus. However, it has been difficult to induce immunological tolerance against islets grafts. The CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cells (Treg) play a role in suppressing T-cell activation. Thus, we evaluated whether Treg can regulate donor-specific T-cell tolerance that received allogeneic islets into the hepatic parenchyma (ITxHP) along with Treg. Methods. C3 H/He mice were used as donors ; and streptozotocin-induced diabetic BALB/c mice were recipients. The protocol included three groups : Group A recipients received only 300 IE islets ; Group B was given 300 IE islets and whole splenocytes ; Group C was given 300 IE islets and Treg purified from peripheral lymph nodes. Results. For all mice in Groups A and B, the fasting blood sugar exceeded 250mg/dl and graft rejection was observed. GVHD was observed earlier in Group B than in Group A. In contrast graft survival exceeded 30 days for two mice in Group C (50%, mean POD 28.5±24.0, P<0.05). Mixed lymphocyte reaction showed that T-cells from tolerant mice had very weak responses against spleen cells from C3H mice. Conclusions. The simultaneous ITxHP with CD4+CD25+ T-cells administration prolonged islet graft survivals and induced donor-specific hyporesposiveness.
The effectiveness of continuous arterial infusion of Gabexate Mesilate (FOY-007) on experimental acute pancreatitis was investigated. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis was induced by an injection of 10% Na-taurocholate (1ml/kg) into the main pancreatic duct of mongrel dogs. Animals were divided into three groups ; Group A : non-treated control, Group B : after the induction of pancreatitis, injected with FOY-007 intravenously (5mg/kg/hr), Group C : after the induction of pancreatitis, injected with FOY-007 via the celiac artery. The changes in the values of amylase and lipase in serum and ascites etc. were examined. A histological examination was done and the FOY-007 concentration of the pancreas was measured. In both groups B and C, the serum levels of amylase and lipase reached significantly to low levels compared with those in group A. The extents of pancreatic parenchyma necrosis in each group were 36.1, 25.3 and 19.5%, respectively, and were significantly improved in group C. In addition, the FOY-007 levels in pancreas specimens in the intraarterial infusion group exceeded those in the intravenous infusion group by 32 times. The results suggest that continuous FOY-007 arterial infusion therapy is useful as a local treatment for severe acute pancreatitis.
The tumor cells’ acquisition of resistance to multiple drugs due to overexpression of the multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 1 gene is one of major obstacles in cancer chemotherapy. We have attempted to reverse the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype by treating etoposide resistant glioma cell lines (T98G-VP and Gli36-VP) with MRP1 antisense oligonucleotides. 20-mer phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide (0.3μM), complementary to the coding region in the MRP cDNA sequence, could significantly inhibit the growth of multidrug resistant cell lines, T98G-VP and Gli36-VP, cultured in etoposide containing medium. No such effect was observed for the parental T98G and Gli36 cell lines. Further investigations by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting revealed that antisense oligomer could result in a reduction in the level of MRP1 mRNA, probably through hindering MRP1 gene transcription. This study demonstrates that the antisense oligonucleotides can increase the sensitivity of the tumor cells to the anticancer drug by decreasing the expression of the MRP gene. This strategy may be applicable to cure cancer patients with MRP mediated MDR phenotype.
Tumor-associated angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth or metastasis, and consists of multiple and sequential steps regulated by proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors. Vascular endothelial cell proliferation is involved in this process. We investigated the correlation of vascular endothelial cell proliferation with microvessel density (MVD) and expression of major proangiogenic molecules, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens of surgically resected HCC from 67 patients were used. Proliferating endothelial cells were detected by immunofluorescence double staining for CD34 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The proliferation activity of endothelial cells was determined by the rate of PCNA-positive endothelial cells, and evaluated at the periphery and center of the tumors and adjacent non-neoplastic livers. MVD and the expression of VEGF and bFGF in the tumors were also examined immunohistochemically. The proliferation activity of endothelial cells at the periphery of the tumors was significantly higher than that at the center of the tumors (35.8% vs. 12.7%, P<0.0001). The rate of PCNA-positive endothelial cells in the tumors with higher bFGF expression was significantly higher than that in the tumors with lower bFGF expression (44.8% vs. 32.5%, P<0.005) at the periphery of the tumors. There was no significant correlation between the rate of PCNA-positive endothelial cells and clinicopathological findings or MVD. In HCC, the proliferation activity of vascular endothelial cells is suggested to be heterogeneous in the tumor and higher at the periphery of the tumor, and bFGF may play an important role in the positive regulation of tumor-associated vascular endothelial cell proliferation.
In the special occasion that the physiological lymphatic flow is obstructed, gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) may spread into the liver via lymphatic route. Therefore, this study was conducted to find out the direct lymphatic route draining into the liver from the gallbladder using pigs with ligated cystic ducts. After injecting the carbon particle suspension (CH40) or the contrast medium (Lipiodol) into the subserosal layer of the gallbladder, the lymphatic route into the liver was examined both macroscopically and histologically. In controls, CH40 or Lipiodol drained along the cystic duct toward the hepatoduodenal ligament. After occlusion of cystic duct, CH40 was interrupted at the ligated point, and then spread into the liver nearby the gallbladder bed, running off to the liver hilus, toward the hepatoduodenal ligament. This route was confirmed by the Lipiodol drainage into the right median lobe of the liver, equivalent to the segments V and IV a in humans. We presented for the first time the emergence of lymphatic drainage from the gallbladder into the liver after the occlusion of physiological lymphatic route using pigs. This implies that the direct spread into the segments V and IV a of liver should be considered in the surgical treatment of advanced GBC.
The purposes of this study were to estimate the electrical conductivity of tissues by non-invasively measuring the electrical bio-impedance, to develop a new method for tissue diagnosis, i.e., electrical impedance tomography (EIT). Tissue models were first designed taking into consideration the distribution of the fat tissue, muscle and bone in the human forearm, and then the intra-tissue distributions of electrical potential and field, and the electrical impedance in the models was theoretically analyzed by the three-dimensional finite element method. The electrical impedance of both forearms was measured in healthy human subjects, and estimated the electrical conductivity of individual local tissues. The results of the analysis showed that the distributions of electrical potential and field were affected by the presence of fat tissue but not by the presence or absence of bone. In addition, as a result of calculation of the electrical resistance of the extracellular fluid (Re) in each model, it was found that the value of bio-impedance was influenced by the presence of fat tissue, and the value of bio-impedance was increased by the intervention of a fat layer. The electrical conductivity estimated by fitting the observed values to the values obtained by finite element analysis was 0.40 S/m and 0.15 S/m for male muscle and fat tissue, and 0.35 S/m and 0.11 S/m for female muscle and fat tissue, respectively. The sex difference in the slope of linear approximation in the estimation of electrical conductivity of the males and females was thought to be due to sex differences in the properties and structure of fat tissue. These results suggest that local tissues can be diagnosed differentially and electrically by percutaneous measurement of local bio-impedance and subsequent estimation of the electrical conductivity of each tissue.
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between CT density (Hounsfield Unit, HU) and the degree of fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake, demonstrated as standard uptake value (SUV). Twenty contiguous patients (9 males, 11 females, age range of 29-79) were performed FDG-PET/CT scan with 750ml of 5% iodine-based oral contrast agent. A region of interest (ROI) was placed manually on oral contrast in the lumen of stomach, small bowel and ascending colon, avoiding contamination of other structures, and the average SUV and average HU were determined. R square and p value were applied to evaluate the correlation. The correlation between SUV and HU in each separate location is not significant. When all regions are combined, p value is significant (<0.05), but R square is not significant. Oral contrast can be one factor that influences measured FDG, and it is possible it acts as an irritant that increases metabolism in the bowel wall, resulting in increased FDG uptake.
Purpose : The aim of the eye care project is to clear the backlog of cataract blindness for the people of Gaur and its surrounding districts in southeast Nepal. The purpose of this study is to analyze the progress of this eye care project. Methods : In mid 1997, the Nepal Netra Jyoti Sangh (NNJS), the national society for comprehensive eye care in Nepal, with financial support from the Association for Ophthalmic Cooperation to Asia (AOCA) and the 24 Hour Television (24HTV) Charity Committee established an eye hospital in the district headquarters of Gaur under the name of Narayani Eye Care Project (NECP). The hospital provides surgery, an outpatient department (OPD) and emergency services. We analyzed the number of patients, the number of surgeries and the profile of patients. Results : The hospital was found to be providing services with modern equipment and instruments and the number of patients frequenting it had increased in accordance with the improved services. From mid 1997 until the end of 2002, the hospital provided services to a total of 122, 093 patients and performed 6, 143 major surgeries and 541 minor surgeries. Conclusions : It has been possible to conduct sight restorations of poor and blind individuals in this region at the Gaur eye hospital with the support of the NECP.
A 71-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further examination of abnormal sputum cytology. No abnormal nodular shadows were detected in chest X-ray and chest CT. The location of the tumor was clearly identified as a defect of autofluorescence by autofluorescence bronchoscopy at the bifurcation between the left B1+2 and B3 bronchi, whereas it was quite difficult by conventional bronchoscopy. Transbronchial biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma. Further examinations yielded the diagnosis of early-stage lung cancer. Photodynamic therapy was performed and complete response was confirmed. This case indicates the efficacy of autofluorescence bronchoscopy for detecting early-stage lung cancer.
We applied Y-STRs (DYS385/DYS19/YCAII) to an adhesive plaster left at a crime scene. This plaster may have included body fluids from more than one person. Firstly, we performed preliminary examinations, ABO-blood type examinations, and commonly used DNA examinations (D1S80, HLADQα, TH01, and PM) on these specimens. As a result of these examinations, we could evidence that suspect A did not contacted with the plaster, but could not confirm the presence of perspiration from suspect B. As the next step, we applied Y-STR examination to the plaster. Using this examination, we detected alleles that coincided to those of suspect B. We also concluded that the fluid from an unidentified person was vaginal fluid based on crime scene investigation. Y-STRs examination data obtained from 124 persons in Tokushima prefecture showed that 1.613% of individuals demonstrated haplotypes 10-18/15/19-23, which was detected from the plaster and from suspect B. Therefore, we considered that there was a high probability that the persiration detected in the plaster was that of suspect B. Based on these studies, we concluded that Y-STR examination of trace evidence was very useful to screen suspects using materials that contained body fluid from more than one person.
A putrefied cadaver of q middle-aged woman was found drifting in the “Kii” water course. Autopsy findings indicated that the postmortem duration was about one week, and the cause of death was assumed to be drowning. In this case, a nail was collected as a sample for personal identification. After five months of police investigation, persons thought to be her family, husband and child, were found. A combination of D1S80 and the short tandem repeat (STR) typing system using an AmpFlSTR ProfilerTM PCR Amplification kit was performed for identification. Nine STRs (D3S1358, vWA, FGA, TH01, TPOX, CSF1PO, D5S818, D13S317 and D7S820) and Amelogenin were analyzed by this kit. Those DNA typings successfully confirmed the family relation for personal identification of the cadaver. This analysis system may be useful for identification of a decomposed cadaver.
A 75-year-old man suffered sustained ventricular tachycardia with syncopal attack. Ventricular tachycardias appeared repeatedly, and an electrical defibrillator was used after an anti-arrhythmic drug, such as lidocaine or mexiletine, proved ineffective. The tachycardias had multiple origins, and the signal-averaged electrocardiogram (SAECG) showed ventricular late potential before the administration of amiodarone. After administration, the filtered QRS and duration of the late potential increased, but the recurrence of tachycardias was suppressed. The reason for this is thought to be that amiodarone blocked the sodium channel and delayed conduction, consequently blocking reentry, because amiodaron has antiarrhymic properties with a prolongation of refractoriness and minimal effect on conduction velocity in ventricular myocardium, and inhibits sympathetic activity, and blocks L-type calcium channel besides the depression of the fast sodium channel. In this case, SAECG predicted to some degree whether or not this patient’s ventricular tachycardia would respond to amiodarone.