I have published a brief version of this research in GRL Studies in 2020. I would greatly appreciate it if you could read my article online. You will find several tables and graphs in color. Therefore, I will addnew information in this paper with only minimal overlap. Before the end of WW II, the Imperial Universities were not generous toward female students.However, the founding members of RIKEN provided laboratory work to promising female researchers who could not find workplaces. The organization is proud of its almost 100-year-history of a femalefriendly tradition. It has maintained the status of a mecca for most active female researchers.
After the resignation of President Summers of Harvard University because of his slip of tongue in 2005,people have realized the need for a leader who understands the importance of the diversity of human resources in STEMM fields. Universities and institutes have encouraged under-represented researchers.Dr. Collins, the director of NIH declared he would decline any invitations to symposiums with only male panels. Kyushu University implemented the‘ Kasoku’ program (international recruitment for women only) for 9 years from 2009 onward, and hired 48 researchers from 808 applicants. Displaying outstanding researchactivities, they disproved that an increase in female researchers would cause a decline in research quality. Diversity in research promises great results.
Although there are many studies on women’s avoidance of math-related activities including STEM careers, few tried to examine their attitude toward the choice of major in Social Scientific fields in the Japanese context. This article examines the percentage of female students in the economics departments of Japanese undergraduate and graduate schools, taking in consideration the historical and social background of the entire phenomena. In the 1980s, the percentage of female students was extremely low in the field of economics, almost at the same level as that in physics. Over the past 30 years, however, the number of female students has increased in the field of economics, and its rate of growth has been higher than that in biology, which has the highest percentage of female students among STEM fields. What is the reason for this difference in trends between economics and STEM fields, despite the fact that both share the use of mathematics? Can this trend continue in future? Based on previous studies on the concept of “Brilliance” and gender bias in the discipline, we discuss the characteristics of women’s relationship with economics and compared them with those in the natural sciences and engineering.
We examine whether gender stereotypes are associated with high school students’ intentions to choose majors. After analyzing student data from the Survey among High School Students and their Mothers, 2012, conducted in Japan, we found that female students who do not agree with an opinion on a general gender stereotype statement (Men should go to work while women should stay at home and take care of the house） have more intention to choose STEM majors than those who agree. On the other hand, we found no evidence that female students who do not agree with an opinion on an ability-specific stereotype statement (Males are more capable of using mathematics and specialized skills） have more intention to choose STEM majors than those who agree. We also found that students’ grades in math and science, parents’ educational level, and family income are associated with students’ intentions to choose STEM majors. These findings indicate that changing the view of gender roles in society would contribute to increase female students who choose STEM majors.
The percentage of women studying STEM fields is lower than men, but the reasons for this gap are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated perception of the gendered image of the seven competencies required in STEM fields, and the degree to which the need for such competencies is perceived in each of six STEM fields. Online surveys in Japan and the UK were conducted. In both countries, “the ability to think logically” and “mathematical ability” was regarded as more masculine, whereas “understanding the needs of society” was regarded as more feminine.Moreover, “mathematical ability” was strongly associated with physics and mathematics, whereas biology was associated with “breadth of knowledge”. Results indicate that the image of competence characteristic of each field is strong and found across national differences between Japan and the UK.
This paper examines the recent discussions and practices concerning so-called the “feminization of medicine” in the United Kingdom. In the UK, the increase in the ratio of female doctors started to gain recognition as a threat for medicine in the early 2000. A female leader of physicians officially stated that the “feminization of medicine” would cause shortfall of medical supplies especially in the areas that require excessive workloads, and decline of social status of medical professionals.However, her statement was immediately criticized and led the argument that demands improvement of labor environment for medical professionals. Today, as a part of project that aims gender equalization in academia, an initiative to empower women in medical education and research is taken place.This case of “feminization of medicine” in the UK shows process of transformation of a community of experts, led by feminization that causes change rather than weakening of a profession.
Takako Nakajima examined the risk communication on BSE held in 2004 by the Food Safety Commission, pointed out that there was dis-communication between administrative agencies and experts, and consumers, and discussed factors therein. This study has two purposes. The first is to examine the BSE risk communication in 2004 and 2013, so as to point out another factor of dis-communication (Chapters 3-4). The relevant factor is the difference in expectations on or interpretations of risk communication that exists between the Commission and citizen-consumers (Chapter 3). This difference is related to the absence of two concepts that are not explicit in the Japanese framework. They are the concern assessment included in the IRGC’s risk governance framework and the other legitimate factors (OLFs) by the Codex (Chapter 4).
When consumer groups face risk communication issues in such a situation, they may show selfrestraint in the form of keeping silent. The second purpose is to show this state of silence using the concept of “scienceplanation” (Chapter 5). Finally, as a breakthrough, the possibility of creating a story from the bottom-up is discussed (Chapter 6).
This paper aims to present a workshop conducted for the aim of discussing social implementation of self-deriving cars in Japan.In this meeting, the Constructive Technology Assessment approach was used as a way to give the participants a large view for thinking about social implementation of the cutting-edge technology.
First, the above aim is elaborated, and the flame work of this study is clarified.
Second, the authors present the social circumstances surrounding robot cars in the United States, Europe, and Japan.In this part, social receptivity situation in those areas is focused.Then, the authors point out the need for an arena to discuss social implementation of autonomous cars.
Third, Constructive Technology Assessment is introduced as an approach to discuss implementation of an unfolding technology in a society.Its origin in Netherlands and the characteristics of the approach are focused.
Fourth, the details of the workshop are presented. In this meeting three keynote talks were given.And three cases were used to facilitate discussion on implementation of robot cars in Japan. Fifth, the authors discuss the outcomes of the workshop. Finally, the above points are summarized, and a need of a future research is pointed out.