The aim of the study was to compare the adhesion of oral microorganisms to different types of soft liner and acrylic resin surfaces. Three different soft lining materials were applied to cavities formed on the fitting surfaces of prostheses in 17 patients. On days 1, 7 and 14, the specimens were taken out and immediately processed for bacteriological evaluation. The numbers of adhering microorganisms were calculated and the specimens were compared among each other and also with a control group (acrylic resin). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and least squares differences at a significance level of P < 0.05. Among the four materials tested the total number of oral microorganisms adhering to Softliner material was the greatest after each of the time periods tested. Higher numbers of oral bacteria and Candida were shown to adhere to soft lining materials than to acrylic resin. Microbial coverage increased continuously with time and the differences between days 1 and 14 were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Temporary soft lining materials are not resistant to adhesion and possible surface damage caused by oral bacteria, and therefore their use should be limited to short-term periods. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 1-8, 2008)
A total of 139 extracted mandibular second molars were injected with India ink and demineralized. They were made clear and transparent with methyl salicylate, and the anatomy of their canals was studied. It was found that 86.3% of mandibular second molars had two roots, 9.3% had one root, and 4.3% had three roots. Ninety percent of the mesial roots of the mandibular second molars with two roots had two canals (predominantly with a type II or III configuration), and 77.5% of the distal roots of these teeth had one canal (predominantly with a type I configuration). Among the mandibular second molars, 7.2% had C-shaped canals and these configurations were seen mostly in single-rooted mandibular second molars. The results of this study indicate that mandibular second molar teeth have many variations in the number of roots and the morphology of their canals. Therefore it should not be assumed that all mandibular second molar teeth have two roots and three canals. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 9-13, 2008)
The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of odontogenic cysts (OCs) in Sicily and evaluate their distribution during a 20-year period. A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out in 1,310 cysts of the jaw diagnosed in 12,197 individuals, who consecutively attended the Odontostomatologic Clinic of Palermo from 1986 to 2005. 1,273 cysts were classified as odontogenic, whereas only 37 were non-odontogenic. In the former group, the most frequent lesions were radicular cysts (84.5%), followed by dentigerous OCs (11.4%). Inflammatory radicular cysts were observed more in male gender, younger age at diagnosis and anterior maxilla as site of presentation. Unlike dentigerous cysts, the frequency of radicular cysts decreased from 10.4% in 1986-1995 to about 8% in 1996-2005 (P < 0.0001). Inflammatory radicular cysts are the most represented group among OCs in our area with a higher prevalence than that reported in other countries. The decreasing epidemiologic trend with time could be attributed to the possible changes in individual oral health behavior. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 15-18, 2008)
The use of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) has increased significantly among athletes in Brazil and other countries. These drugs alter the physiological behavior of bone and muscles, also affecting these structures in masticatory system. This paper aims to evaluate bone and dental changes in users of AAS, as well as the incidence of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD), compared to athletes not using AAS. Eight athletes were equally divided in two groups, AAS users and non-users. The groups were evaluated using Helkimo index, McNamara cephalometric tracing and cast analysis. The AAS users presented more intense TMD signs and symptoms (Di total value, P = 0.096, Mann-Whitney test), increased cephalometric measures (Co-A, P = 0.020, Mann-Whitney test) and Angle Class II malocclusion, compared to the non-users. These results suggested that the use of AAS alters masticatory structures and increases the incidence of TMD. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 19-24, 2008)
The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the presence of HCMV and EBV-1 in subgingival plaque, unstimulated saliva and peripheral blood of patients with chronic periodontitis. Forty patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis (mean age, 41.7 years) were recruited. Unstimulated saliva, subgingival plaque and peripheral blood were collected from each patient and the DNA of each sample was isolated. The viruses were detected using the nested PCR technique. The detection frequency of EBV-1 in subgingival plaque, saliva and peripheral blood was 45%, 37.5% and 25%, respectively. HCMV was detected in 82.5% of subgingival plaque samples and peripheral blood and in 75% of salivary samples. The sensitivity for detecting EBV-1 in saliva and peripheral blood when EBV-1 was detected in subgingival plaque samples was low (22% and 27.7%, respectively) and the sensitivity for detecting HCMV in saliva and peripheral blood when compared to subgingival plaque was high (81.8% and 87.8%, respectively). There is a high agreement among the three sampling methods in detection of HCMV, but the detection of EBV-1 would require a combination of saliva and subgingival plaque sampling to avoid false negative results. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 25-31, 2008)
Angina bullosa hemorrhagica (ABH) is an oral mucosal blood blister that develops without blood dyscrasia or vesiculobullous disorder. Although a minor mucosal trauma has been suggested as a triggering factor for ABH, its etiopathogenesis, especially the causative role of systemic conditions, is largely unknown. We investigated the presence or absence of local factors as well as systemic background disease in 16 patients with ABH arising in the soft palate. All the lesions were solitary, and 75% of them (n = 12) appeared during the ingestion of hard or crispy food. With regard to underlying systemic conditions, hypertension was the most common (n = 6), and asthma, insomnia, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, gastrointestinal disorder and hyperuricemia were also recorded (n = 1 each). Five patients had no significant background disease. There were no recalcitrant or recurrent cases. In conclusion, the present study has revealed that scratching of the oral mucosa during eating plays an important role in the formation of ABH. Hypertension appears to be the most frequent background condition, but its pathogenic relationship with ABH remains speculative, as hypertension is fairly common in adults. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 33-36, 2008)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of power density on contraction stress of resin composite restorative materials during photo-polymerization. Six flowable resin composites, and a hybrid resin composite for comparison, were used. The composites were polymerized with the power density adjusted to either 100 or 600 mW/cm2. Stress development was determined with a custom-made tensilometer. The adhesive was placed in a thin layer on a steel rod and resin paste was packed into the mold. The contraction force (N) generated during polymerization was continuously recorded and the maximum contraction stress (MPa) was calculated. Data were analyzed statistically. When the power density was adjusted to 100 mW/cm2, the average contraction stress ranged from 0.30 to 0.50 MPa for the flowable composites, compared with 0.35 MPa for the hybrid composite. When the power density was adjusted to 600 mW/cm2, the average contraction stress ranged from 0.34 to 1.00 MPa for the flowable composites and 0.69 MPa for the hybrid composite comparison. For all materials tested except Estelite Flow Quick, contraction stress increased with higher power density. The present results indicate that contraction stress during polymerization is influenced by power density and resin composite type. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 37-43, 2008)
Although orthodontic treatment improves dentoalveolar problems, the facial profile seldom changes because the perioral muscles do not easily adapt to the new morphological circumstances. We employed proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF), which is training with added resisted movement to motions such as lifting the upper lip, lowering the lower lip, and sticking out the tongue, to adapt the perioral muscles to the new morphological circumstances. The subjects were 40 adults with an average age of 29.6 years. A series of PNF exercises was performed three times per day for 1 month. Lateral facial photographs were taken using a digital camera before training (T0), after training (T1), and 1 month after the end of training (T2). The nasolabial (NL), mentolabial (ML), and mentocervical (MC) angles were measured, and linear measurements were taken to verify the change of each measurement point. In the test group, the NL and ML angles significantly increased (P < 0.05), and the MC angle significantly decreased after the PNF exercise. From T1 to T2, the NL and ML angles decreased significantly, while the MC angle increased significantly. No significant differences were observed in these angles when the values measured at T0 and T2 were compared. Although the training appeared to be effective for sharpening the mouth and submandibular region, continued training is necessary to avoid relapse. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 45-51, 2008)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the key enzymes responsible for matrix degradation, are derived from polymorphonuclear leukocytes during the early stages of periodontitis. The present study determined the levels of GCF matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and salivary MMP-8 in patients with gingivitis and periodontitis and in healthy controls. Levels of crevicular MMP-2, MMP-9 and salivary MMP-8 were determined by ELISA in subjects with healthy gingiva (n = 15), gingivitis (n = 18) and periodontitis (n = 20). Significantly higher salivary MMP-8 and crevicular MMP-9 were observed in cases of periodontitis compared to gingivitis and healthy adults. On the other hand, crevicular MMP-2 levels in periodontitis subjects were lower than those in gingivitis and healthy subjects. The three MMP levels were highly correlated to probing depth, and bleeding on probing. Salivary MMP-8, crevicular MMP- 2 and 9 may serve as biomarkers of periodontal disease and aid in early detection of periodontitis or gingivitis. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 53-56, 2008)
The present study was conducted to clarify the effects of chewing a quid containing areca nut and tobacco on periodontal tissue and oral hygiene status. A total of 365 subjects (168 chewers and 197 non-chewers with a mean age of 32.5 ± 0.7 and 30.4 ± 0.8 years, respectively) were enrolled. Clinical data on periodontal tissues, oral hygiene status, as well as information on bleeding from gums, ulcers in the oral cavity, or a burning sensation in the soft tissues, were collected as indicators of the possible presence and extent of periodontal lesions. The results indicated that a significantly higher number of quid-chewers suffered bleeding from the gums, halitosis, difficulty in opening the mouth and swallowing solid food, a burning sensation in the soft tissues, and ulcers in the oral cavity than non-chewers. There was no significant difference between quid-chewers and non-chewers with respect to oral hygiene measures adopted. However, clinical examination using the oral hygiene index score indicated that the oral hygiene status of quid-chewers was significantly deteriorated. The effect of quid-chewing on the periodontium, i.e. the occurrence of periodontal pockets, gingival lesions and gum recession, were significantly higher in quid-chewers than in non-chewers. Age, sex and smoking adjusted odds ratios for quid-chewers against non-chewers using logistic regression analysis indicated that, in general, chewers were at significantly higher risk for various oral complaints and periodontium status. The present data indicate that chewing quid comprising areca nut and tobacco has adverse effects on periodontal tissues, oral hygiene and incidence of oral lesions. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 57-62, 2008)
The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the antimicrobial substantivity of BioPure MTAD, 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 2.6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in human root dentin. One hundred and ten dentin tubes prepared from human maxillary incisors were infected in vitro for 14 days with Enterococcus faecalis. The specimens were divided into five groups as follows: CHX; BioPure MTAD; NaOCl; infected dentin tubes (positive control); and sterile dentin tubes (negative control). Dentin chips were collected with round burs into Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth. After culturing, the number of colony-forming units (CFU) was counted. In all experimental groups, CFU was minimum after treatment (day 0), and the results obtained were significantly different from each other at any time period (P < 0.05). After treatment, the NaOCI group and BioPure MTAD group showed the lowest and highest number of CFU, respectively. In each group, the number of CFUs increased significantly by time-lapse (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the substantivity of BioPure MTAD was significantly greater than CHX and NaOCl. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 63-67, 2008)
The aim of the present study was to provide a general scheme for pulpectomy of primary molars that may be useful for decision-making about negotiation of root canals and selection of appropriate instruments. A total of 160 vital primary molars in 85 patients (40 males, 45 females) aged 4-6 years were selected. After taking primary radiographs, local anesthesia was induced, and the teeth were isolated using a rubber dam. Canal accessibility index (CAI) and tooth accessibility index (TAI) were calculated according to initial file size. Mandibular first molars had either three canals (79.2%) or four canals (20.8%), and all second molars had four canals. Maxillary first molars had three canals and second molars had either three canals (70.9%) or four canals (29.1%). Lower accessibility of the mandibular first molar distobuccal root accounted for the lower accessibility of these teeth in comparison with mandibular second molars. While three-canal maxillary second molars were more accessible due to the lower accessibility of the distobuccal canal of the maxillary first molar, poor accessibility of the distal canal in four-canal second molars was responsible for the difficult accessibility of these teeth. In conclusion, it seems that the accessibility of a single canal in each tooth determines the difficulty of accessibility for any given tooth. Moreover, while primary second molars are more accessible than first molars, all of them are negotiable. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 69-74, 2008)
We investigated the effects of Ga-Al-As laser irradiation on the mineralization ability of human dental pulp (HDP) cells and on Smads and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) production as one mechanism for the transmission of laser photochemical energy to cells. HDP cells in vitro were irradiated once with a Ga-Al-As laser at 1.0 W for 500 s, and calcified nodule formation was assessed by Alizarin red S staining. The laser irradiation was greater in the laser-irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group. Both calcium production and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were higher after laser irradiation. Expression of mRNAs for Smad1, Smad7, BMPs, ALP, and osteocalcin was greater after laser irradiation, whereas expression of Smad6 mRNA was inhibited. Production of BMP-2 and BMP-4 in conditioned medium was also higher after laser irradiation. These results suggest that Smads and BMPs play important roles in ALP activity and calcification upon laser irradiation of HDP cells. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 75-81, 2008)
The effect of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) on the production of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in human gingival fibroblasts originated from a nifedipine-reactive patient was investigated. Ca2+-mobilizing agents, thapsigargin and bradykinin, were also tested to determine whether they affected the production and release of bFGF. The release of bFGF from IL-1α-pretreated cells in relation to the transient increase in intracellular Ca2+([Ca2+]i) and extracellular Ca2+levels was also investigated. IL-1α and thapsigargin yielded significantly higher bFGF production, and also enhanced bFGF mRNA expression. IL-1α-pretreated cells showed significantly greater release of bFGF under the present experimental conditions. Levels of released bFGF were significantly higher in cells pretreated with IL-1α, followed by bradykinin and thapsigargin in the presence of extracellular Ca2+. The transient mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ accelerated the release of bFGF in IL-1α-pretreated cells, but not in untreated cells. Thus, IL-1α increases bFGF production in nifedipine-reactive gingival fibroblasts and also influences the release of bFGF in the IL-1α-pretreated cells. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 83-90, 2008)
Carcinoma originating in bone is uncommon; most of them apparently arise in odontogenic cysts. In this paper, we report an extremely rare case in which, verrucous carcinoma originated from an odontogenic cyst. This lesion was firm and non-tender on palpation and had a white-pink appearance. It was encased in the anterior aspect of the maxilla and exhibited microscopic features of verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa. After surgical enucleation, no recurrence or metastasis has been observed up to now. It is mandatory to correlate the clinical and histopathologic findings to establish a true diagnosis. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 91-94, 2008)
Intraosseous adenoid cystic carcinoma is an extremely rare neoplasm with only 17 cases reported previously. A case of primary intraosseous adenoid cystic carcinoma of the mandible with lung metastasis in a 45-year-old man is reported, together with a brief review of the literature. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 95-98, 2008)
We report the diagnosis and successful clinical management of three patients with anatomical variation in the maxillary first premolars. Maxillary first premolars have highly variable root canal morphology, but the presence of three canals is rare. This article describes the diagnosis and clinical management of first maxillary premolars with three canals and three separate roots, with special reference to radiographic interpretation and access refinements. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 99-102, 2008)
Myiasis is a term derived from the Greek word “myia”, meaning invasion of vital tissue of humans or other mammals by fly larvae. The deposited eggs develop into larvae, which penetrate deep structures causing adjacent tissue destruction. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions, alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. This paper reports a case of oral and maxillofacial myiasis involving 273 larvae in a patient with epidermoid carcinoma without physical or neurological deficiency. The patient's management was antisepsis, larval removal and general care, before death after three months. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 103-105, 2008)
This article presents non-surgical resolution of an extensive periapical lesion of endodontic origin associated with the maxillary left lateral incisor. Clinical examination revealed an asymptomatic bony hard swelling confined to the palate, while radiographic analysis showed a lesion measuring 22 mm in diameter and nearly 389 mm2 in area. Through apical patency, 4 ml of intracanal exudate was drained. After thorough biomechanical preparation, a calcium hydroxide/CPMC root canal dressing was applied and periodically renewed for 11 months. The exudate was eliminated at treatment onset and significant bone formation was observed at the periapical region in the following months with concomitant resolution of the cortical expansion. Complete radiographic resolution of the periapical lesion was observed two years after the root canal filling. Thus, non-surgical treatment of this supposedly cystic, extensive periapical lesion provided favorable clinical and radiographic response. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 107-111, 2008)
The aim of the present study was to design and fabricate a maxillary posterior fixed partial denture (FPD) made of a type 4 gold alloy and an indirect composite. Unlike the conventional framework design of a resin veneered restoration, cut-back was extended approximately 1/4 to 1/3 width in the occlusal table of the buccal cusp. Multiple retentive beads 150-200 μm in diameter were placed on the metal surface to be veneered. The gold alloy was cast in a cristobalite mold using a centrifugal casting machine. The cut surface with the retentive beads was air-abraded with alumina, and a priming agent (Alloy Primer) that contained triazine dithione monomer (VTD) was applied. A tooth-colored veneer was then fabricated with a highly loaded light- and heat-cured composite material (Estenia). This design and procedure can be applied as a standardized laboratory technique for fabrication of maxillary posterior restorations and FPDs. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 113-116, 2008)
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