The health of industrial workers often goes uncared for due to their stressful working conditions, busy schedules and poor economic conditions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of tooth loss, prosthetic status and treatment needs among industrial workers in Belgaum, Karnataka, India according to the criteria described in the World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Assessment form (1997). A total of 614 workers participated in the study. Information was obtained regarding their oral hygiene practice. The presence or absence of habits, and the frequency and duration since the last visit to a dentist were recorded followed by clinical examination. Chi-square test was used to determine the association between the variables and tooth loss. There was a statistically significant difference between the number of missing teeth in different age groups, methods of cleaning, smoking habits and visits to the dentist. Regarding prosthetic status, only one worker had a fixed prosthesis in the mandibular arch. The study revealed that tooth loss was associated with oral hygiene practices, habits and visits to the dentist. Poor prosthetic status and high treatment needs were observed. This study emphasized the need for improved dental health awareness and availability of dental facilities to industrial workers. (J Oral Sci 54, 285-292, 2012)
Prevention and treatment of oral diseases and diabetes require persistent daily self-care, as there is a mutual association between periodontitis severity and level of diabetes control. In this questionnaire study, we investigated oral health behavior, attitudes, and knowledge of diabetes-related factors among 500 Indian adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The questionnaire asked about oral self-care, dental visits, self-perceived problems, and knowledge of the relationship between diabetes and oral health. The most recent glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) value was obtained from patient medical records. Overall, 22% of participants reported twice-daily toothbrushing; women were more likely than men to brush twice daily (P< 0.001). With respect to age and diabetes control, participants aged 35-44 years with good diabetes control had the highest rate of twice-daily brushing (P< 0.001). Oral self-care and use of dental services were poor among participants. The present results indicate that Indians with type 2 diabetes need further promotion of oral self-care and regular dental checkups to compensate for their increased risk of oral disease. (J Oral Sci 54, 293-301, 2012)
A study was conducted to determine the degree of tooth loss, factors influencing tooth loss, and the extent of prosthodontic rehabilitation in Sudanese adults (≥ 16 years old) attending outpatient clinics in Khartoum State. Pearson and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships between tooth loss and specific characteristics determined through interviews and clinical examinations. The mean number of missing teeth was 3.6 (SD, 4.9) and the prevalence of edentulism was 0.1%. The prevalence of tooth loss (missing at least one tooth) was 78%; 66.9% of tooth loss was due to caries, and 11.2% was attributable to other reasons. Prosthetic replacement of missing teeth was evident in 3%, whereas a need for prosthetic replacement was evident in 57%. Having < 20 teeth was associated with age, gender, and socioeconomic status; tooth loss due to caries was associated with age, tribe, frequency of tooth-brushing, and a low rate of dental consultation. Tooth loss due to other reasons was associated with age, tribe, education, periodontal pocketing, tobacco use, tooth wear, and prosthetic status. The results of the present study indicated that the major cause of tooth loss was dental caries, thus emphasizing the importance of a public prevention-based healthcare program. Replacement of missing teeth was uncommon in the study subjects, which may reflect lack of access to this type of oral healthcare. (J Oral Sci 54, 303-312, 2012)
The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Tamil version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS). One hundred and forty-six patients attending the Outpatient Department of SRM Dental College, Chennai, India consented to participate in the study. The assessment tools consisted of a history form, Tamil version of the MDAS questionnaire and a form for Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The Tamil version of MDAS had a good internal consistency of 0.839. The mean total score decreased with age. Females were more anxious than males (10.16 and 9.43, respectively). Uneducated, unemployed and low income subjects were more anxious than their counterparts who were educated, employed and from a higher income group. Persons who perceived their oral health as poor were more anxious. Independent t-test showed a highly significant difference in the mean total score of the respondents who had postponed their dental visit due to anxiety (t-test 6.494, P < 0.001). VAS and MDAS scores showed a highly significant correlation (r = 0.827, P < 0.001). This supported the convergent validity of MDAS. The Tamil version of MDAS showed acceptable psychometric properties. (J Oral Sci 54, 313-320, 2012)
This study compared pain intensity and psychosocial characteristics between patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and those with trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Data from 282 patients with BMS and 83 patients with TN were analyzed. Patients reported duration of illness: duration ≤ 6 months was defined as acute illness and > 6 months as chronic illness. Present pain intensity and worst pain intensity during the past 6 months were reported using a 0-10 numeric rating scale (NRS). In addition, depression and somatization scores were evaluated on questionnaires. Patients with chronic BMS reported significantly higher pain intensity and had worse psychosocial characteristics than did those with acute BMS. Pain intensity was higher in TN patients than in BMS patients, although neither pain intensity nor psychosocial characteristics significantly differed between patients with acute and chronic illness. Logistic regression analysis of BMS and TN patients revealed that the odds ratio for worst pain was significantly lower for BMS patients than for TN patients and that the odds ratio for somatization score was 3.8 times higher in BMS patients. These findings suggest that BMS patients may require pain control targeting the central nervous system or psychosocial characteristics. (J Oral Sci 54, 321-327, 2012)
Plasminogen activator (PA) is the enzyme responsible for converting plasminogen to its active form, plasmin, which is involved in various physiological and pathological phenomena. PA exists in two forms: urokinase-type PA (uPA) and tissue-type PA (tPA). Here we investigated the effect of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) on PA production and secretion in human dental pulp cells. When the cells were stimulated with TNF-α (10 ng/mL), PA activity in the medium clearly increased in a time-dependent manner, and this activity was reduced after immunoprecipitation with anti-uPA antibody, but not with anti-tPA antibody. In TNF-α-stimulated cells, the expression of uPA mRNA was enhanced, but was lower than that of tPA mRNA. The expression of uPA mRNA and PA secretion stimulated by TNF-α were reduced by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors herbimycin A and genistein, and by the NFκB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, but were augmented by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate. In the presence of another inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 1β (IL-1β, 100 pg/mL), TNF-α-stimulated expression of uPA mRNA and secretion of uPA were enhanced. These observations suggest that TNF-α stimulates uPA production and secretion, and that this effect is regulated via activation of NFκB and tyrosine phosphorylation, apparently in conjunction with IL-1β, during inflammation in human dental pulp. (J Oral Sci 54, 329-336, 2012)
The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the effects of removable partial dentures on the support tissues and changes occurring in lower tooth-supported and bilateral distal-extension dentures, 5 years after placement. The study involved analysis of a total of 53 patients who received prosthetic treatment for removable partial dentures. The patients were divided into two groups. In group 1, the patients had a completely edentulous maxilla and an edentulous area with natural teeth remaining in both the anterior and posterior regions. In group 2, the patients had a completely edentulous maxilla and partially edentulous mandible with preserved anterior teeth. Tooth mobility, prevalence of caries, fracture of the abutment teeth, fracture and/or deformation of the removable partial denture components and stability of the denture base were evaluated. The use of a removable partial denture increased tooth mobility, reduced the prevalence of caries, and did not cause loss or fracture of the abutments or damage to their components, when compared with the baseline. It was concluded that there was no difference between the groups as evaluated in terms of tooth mobility, prevalence of caries, loss and fracture of the abutments or damage to the components of the removable partial denture. (J Oral Sci 54, 337-342, 2012)
Since 1998, the authors have been working to improve the oral health of children at kindergartens and primary schools in the Kingdom of Tonga (Tonga). Our primary activity has been a school-based fluoride mouth-rinsing (FMR) program. FMR is performed using 7-10 mL of a 0.2% NaF solution for 1 min once per week at each school. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of school-based FMR on dental caries incidence among Tongan schoolchildren. A total of 109 children aged 10 years were evaluated at six primary schools on Tongatapu Island. The FMR group comprised 46 children who had participated in the school-based FMR program for at least 5 years 6 months; the control group comprised 63 children who had participated in the school-based FMR program for 1 year or less. During standardized dental examinations, decayed, missing, and filled teeth were counted by a single dentist at each school. The school-based FMR program effectively decreased the number of dental caries. A school-based FMR program may thus be very beneficial in preventing caries among children in Tonga. (J Oral Sci 54, 343-347, 2012)
This study evaluated chroma change in two composite materials (Sinfony and Pearleste) polymerized with two different systems. Disk specimens were prepared using a metal halide unit (Hyper LII) and an exposure time of 60 to 180 s. The proprietary polymerization systems (Visio and Pearlcure systems) were used as the reference polymerization modes. After storage at 37°C for 24 h, CIE 1976 L*a*b* values were measured by using a dental chroma meter (ShadeEye NCC) with a gray background. The specimens were then immersed in water or tea. Color change from baseline to 4 weeks was evaluated by measuring ΔL*, Δa*, and Δb*, after which ΔE*ab values were calculated. The brightness of Sinfony specimens was reduced by tea immersion. The color of both materials shifted to yellow after tea immersion, although color change in Sinfony specimens was greater than that in Pearleste specimens. For both materials, color change was less after polymerization with the metal halide unit. In conclusion, Sinfony polymerized with the Hyper LII unit, and Pearleste polymerized with either system, were stable against discoloration due to tea immersion. (J Oral Sci 54, 349-354, 2012)
This paper describes the utility of three-dimensional (3D) images obtained with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for prediction of successful clinical outcome in two cases of intentional tooth replantation (IR). IR was performed for teeth affected by vertical root fracture and root perforation with local application of blood clot and oxy-tetracycline antibiotic. High-resolution 3D images demonstrated no evidence of ankylosis, but did reveal the presence of alveolar bone regeneration, suggesting a good long-term prognosis. Our observations in these cases suggested that local application of the above two materials might help to induce the regeneration of lost periodontal tissues in IR. (J Oral Sci 54, 355-358, 2012)
Treatment of trauma to anterior teeth should aim at preserving the affected teeth so as to restore function and esthetic appearance. Recently, patients have come to expect adequate esthetics immediately after trauma. In the present case, a deep crown-root fracture compromised the pulp and extended subgingivally on the palatal aspect. After using the fractured fragment as a provisional crown, the patient received conventional root canal treatment, which provided immediately satisfactory esthetic results and reliable short-term restoration of the crown-root fractured tooth. Rehabilitation of the fractured central incisor was performed with a postcore-supported prosthetic restoration. (J Oral Sci 54, 359-362, 2012)
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