Raw milk will be reborn as cheese by adding additives such as lactic acid bacteria, milk-clotting enzyme as a raw material and by applying unit operation such as heating, cooling, fermentation, agitation, separation, pressing, and cutting. Cheese is rich in milk protein and milk fat and has been contributing to the health and nutrition of the people. In recent years, a large scale of continuous cheese manufacturing equipment has been developed including pre-treatment process such as bacteria removal separator, microfiltration membrane and pasteurisation of raw milk and component adjustment of milk for cheese. Automation and large scale of equipment has contributed to the improvement of quality and reduction of man-hours. In this paper we outline the trends of recent natural cheese manufacturing equipment and facilities about cheddar cheese and mozzarella cheese as an example.
Relation between the parameters obtained from 2-bite TPA (Texture Profile Analysis) and the velocity of foods through the pharynx were investigated. TPA tests were conducted at plunger speeds of 1 and 10 mm/s, and three textural parameters of ‘hardness’, ‘adhesiveness’, and ‘cohesiveness’ were obtained from TPA profiles. The velocity through the pharynx was measured by the ultrasonic pulse Doppler method. The ‘hardness’ was correlated best with the maximum velocity through the pharynx, Vmax, which has been reported to be one of the best predictors of aspiration risk, among three textural parameters. On the other hand, the ‘cohesiveness’ was not correlated with velocity distribution through pharynx, with changing in sample properties. The ‘hardness’ is, therefore, considered to be the most suitable index for care foods for dysphagic patients among these three parameters. The plots of Vmaxvs. three textural parameters measured at a plunger speed of 10 mm/s were similar to those at 1 mm/s. Therefore, a test speed of 1 mm/s in TPA was suggested to be more suitable than 10 mm/s, considering that the parameters measured under a plunger speed of 1 mm/s were independent of rheometers used according to a previous work.
Rapid and sensitive measurement systems for pathogenic bacteria have been required for food safety assessment. In this study, we performed the quantitative detection of bacteria contained in beverages with combination of dielectrophoretic (DEP) condensation and fluorescence image analysis, and verified the quantitative validity of the present measurement system. The detection error against the collection number of S. cerevisiae was within 15% under the present conditions, and the detection accuracy is comparable with other conventional methods. Different variations of trapping numbers of bacteria for driving frequency and bacterial concentration were observed in green tea and mineral water in spite of same conductivity. It is because the components of green tea influenced DEP parameters. The flow characteristics of bacterial trapping number in the upper and lower regions of electrodes provided the quantitative evaluation of trapped bacteria on the whole electrodes. Our method has advantages in terms of rapid response and easy operation using DEP and is possible for the detection and visualization of each cell with fluorescence stain. Therefore, it can be applied to further specific samples of low concentration or localized trapping compared with other DEP measurements.
Rice stem was treated with subcritical water at 260°C for 0-20 min. The extracts treated for 5 min were subject to re-treatment for 0-60 min. In the further treatment, the total phenolic content, total carbohydrate content, radical scavenging ability, and metal chelating ability decreased with extended treatment time. Tyrosinase inhibition ability, however, did not depend on the treatment time. There were correlations between the total phenolic content and radical scavenging ability and between the total carbohydrate content and metal chelating ability under any treatment conditions.