Emulsions are dispersions of at least two immiscible liquids, one of which is dispersed as droplets in the other liquid, and stabilized by an emulsifier, such as oil and water. Different types of emulsions can be formulated according to different applications. Emulsions are categorized as simple or multiple type. Oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) are the simple emulsions, while water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W), and oil-in-water-in-oil (O/W/O) emulsions are known as multiple emulsions. Droplets of different sizes and the size distribution patterns formed based on different emulsification processes can affect their physicochemical properties. Hence, the droplet size and its distribution may determine the shelf-life stability, rheological properties, color and taste of food emulsions. Micro/nano-emulsions have been increasingly utilized in the food industry as delivery system carriers that can encapsulate, protect, and deliver lipophilic functional food components, such as bioactive lipids, oil-soluble flavors, vitamins, and nutraceuticals. The application of micro/nano-emulsions has potential advantages in increasing the bioavailability of lipophilic functional food components, modulating the product texture and improving the stability of droplets against aggregation. This article provides an overview of the current status of micro/nano-emulsion containing functional food components, preparations and characterizations, and presents the applications of micro/nano-emulsions in food industry.
We developed an infrared spectroscopic evaluation method of Sake (rice wine), whose quality and taste highly depend on the chemical contents, the interactions between the components, and the pH value, using a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer equipped with an attenuated total reflection (ATR) accessory. The objective of this study is to understand the spectral features of Sake and the main components because the component balances of the amino and organic acids originating from white rice as the raw material and being produced during brewing processes could closely relate to the Sake characteristics. The spectral features characterizing the Sake variety were mainly observed in four regions on the mid-infrared (MIR) spectra. The Sake varieties was able to be distinguished as a difference in the spectrum pattern by considering the pH dependence of the amino and other organic acids based on the ionic dissociation equilibrium theory. Furthermore, the Sake, which has almost a similar characteristic, such as the polishing ratio of the rice as the raw material is different by only 5% or the Sake product before and after it matured, could be identified on the spectral data. Consequently, the infrared spectral information analysis would be acceptable as a new method to evaluate a profile of Sake for the quality evaluation relating to the taste and the non-destructive on-line monitoring of the brewing process.
The purpose of this study is to prepare ice cream and sorbet in small quantities and to measure the physical changes that take place during the freezing process using a starch pasting device. Ice cream and sorbet were prepared with 25 g of the mix using a starch pasting device rotating at 15 revolutions per second and a cooling rate of 1℃/min. The flavor of the ice cream and sorbet were almost the same as those prepared with a batch freezer. The increased rotation rate of the ice cream mix reduced the rate of increase in viscosity beyond the freezing point and elevated the levels of overrun after making the ice cream. As the cooling rate of the mix increased, the increase in the viscosity was found beyond the freezing point and the overruns increased after making the ice cream. The application of a starch pasting device allows numerical values to be ascribed to the changes taking place during the production of ice cream and sorbet. In conclusion, small scale production methods can contribute to reducing a large amount of waste generated during trial production and indeed facilitate the trial production of new ice cream products.
Recently, rice powder is paid attention because it can be processed to noodle, bread, cake, etc., in Japan. Generally, rice is crushed after immersed by water because rice is hard. A lot of energy is necessary for drying, and the milling flour cost is high. The manufacturing method that can be milled by non-heating is requested by the milling flour industry. Authors have developed the food processing device using instantaneous high pressure. Effects of the processing by this technology are milling flour, sterilization, softening and the juice extraction by non-heating. In this paper, the rice powder manufacturing device using the instantaneous high pressure is developed. The possibility of the milling flour without immersing is clarified. Moreover, the amount of the milling flour per hour and element of rice powder are assessed by experiment.
The interior oil fraction in a microcapsule, defined as the ratio of the volume of oil isolated from the microcapsule surface to the whole volume of the microcapsule, was statistically calculated based on a two-dimensional percolation model. As the entire oil fraction increased, the interior oil fraction first increased and then sharply declined after reaching a maximum value. It was demonstrated that reduction of the oil-droplet size was effective in the preparation of microcapsules with a high interior oil fraction.
The application examples of PTR-MS which measures volatile organics forming flavor or quality of foods in real-time were introduced focusing on breath-by-breath analysis of retronasal aroma. Time variations of multiple low concentration flavor compounds at each exhalation events after swallowing food or drink could be tracked simultaneously by using PTR-MS instruments. With this approach, the aroma perception was analyzed in view of mass transfer processes, especially remarking interfacial mass transfer which determined liquid–gas partitioning. Physicochemical properties related with retronasal aroma were complicated and could not be interpreted only by the differences of simple Henry’s law constants.