Effective means for knowledge transfer between universities and industry are central to current debates on industry competitiveness. However, the experience of promoting knowledge transfer is mixed, especially in the lagging regions where demand is low. Consequently, there is an interest in identifying whether particular forms of university-industry linkage can lead to localized benefits even when applied in lagging regions. In the UK one scheme for promoting knowledge exchange through the seconding of people is the Knowledge Transfer Partnerships (KTPs), which has been in operation since the early 1980s. As the KTPs involve the placement of a graduate within the partner company with regular supervision from an academic then it has been assumed that this scheme tends to be more localized. This paper examines whether projects are localized, whether the programme has been taken up across all UK regions evenly, and therefore whether this kind of programme is therefore appropriate for a regionally sensitive innovation strategy. The data analysis is divided into two sections. The first section uses data on all KTPs completed by 2012 drawing upon a database of about 6000 projects. This offers the chance to extract generalizations about the localization of industry-university linkages. The second section uses more detailed data on the location of companies and focuses on the ten universities within the dataset with the highest level of participation in KTPs. Social network analysis results showed that proximity is important for KTP cooperating partners. It is shown that the peak in travel time more or less consistently shows up at about 25 minutes regarding the top ten universities. We also show at least a slight indication towards supporting the hypothesis that interregional or more distant linkages more often involve bigger sized companies.
This study has examined the lower end of the age of children at which PBL using robots is effective. First, the study investigated to what extent young children show interest in the task of building a robot and participating in a competition, using the robot they assembled, and to what extent they can maintain their motivation levels. In this experiment, the young children were asked to build the face and body of a robot which had been previously prepared so that the robot would gain some character, and then to participate in the race with the robots they had built. We observed how they behaved in performing the task. The experiment has shown that the three-year-old child could not maintain concentration in building the robot, and he could not concentrate on the race. The four-year-old and five-year-old children managed to maintain concentration in building the robot, and when they participated in the competition, they understood the aim of the competition and participated in it until the end while maintaining their levels of motivation. The result suggests that problem-solving PBL in which children are asked to compete with robots they built could be effective for children of four years of age and older.
In Japan in the past, almost all boys frequently played outdoors with toys such as takeuma (stilts), marbles, menko (a card game), and koma (spinning tops), whereas the majority of girls played with skipping ropes, otedama (beanbags), and maritsuki (bouncing balls). However, the environment in which children are raised has changed. Children are now instead spending their time playing console, hand-held, and mobile-phone games. As a result, their exposure to virtual worlds experienced visually through electronic devices has increased, whereas, their time spent participating in outdoor activities has decreased. Children now have little opportunity for self-discovery and other natural environment experiences, due to such factors as the prohibition of schoolyard use after school and a decrease in the amount of open space.The result of such environmental changes is that engineering anticipation capability has fallen. Some younger engineers and students who both played and learned through electronic media are convinced that experiences gained through computer-aided engineering (CAE) are equally as valid as those obtained in real life and design objects incompatible with the real world while being confident in their own effectiveness. In the present paper, we classify the above-listed simple outdoor activities, consider these effects of changes in the childhood environments of engineering students and introduce practical problem-based learning (PBL) methods to address the lack of important real-world experience.
The Construction industry is one of the four key sectors of the UK economy. Furthermore, construction is one of the most multi- and inter-disciplinary. Yet, one of the greatest challenges that the industry faces is skill-shortages. One crucial aspect is that there is a serious lack of young persons, entering the industry for their career. This study investigates this problem from different angles to paint an overall picture of what the high school students think of a career in the industry.
A detailed review of the up-to-date literature is conducted to compile latest facts, not only to be employed as a benchmark but also to inform the survey/questionnaire design, which targeted 14-19 year olds in secondary school and Sixth Form. The questionnaire has a mix of both quantitative and qualitative aspects. In total 138 responses were received. Both descriptive and inferential statistics, such as Chi-square tests, were applied in the data analysis.
The results reveal that young people in high school have largely negative views of careers in construction, which can well be one of the biggest reasons for the growing skill-shortages in the industry. The Chi-square test discovered an association between gender and construction image as well as gender and consideration of career in construction. In terms of gender divide, relatively, males viewed the industry more positively than females.
Surprisingly, ‘YouTuber’ was found to be the most popular career choice amongst high school students, closely followed by ‘sports person’ and ‘teaching’. ‘Building trade’ was selected only 8 times out of the 138 responses. The study also observed that social media surpassed conventional means, including family, for career information sources.
Based on the aforesaid findings, the study also formulates recommendations on how the industry can promote itself more effectively to attract new entrants (especially the school-going youth) to seek careers in the industry. The study establishes that the Construction industry image is a major contributing factor deterring the high school students from seeking careers in construction as the respondents describe the industry to be ‘dirty’ and ‘boring’. The high school respondents believe that work-experience days would be the most effective promotion method as well as media campaigns and increased social media presence. Therefore, the study strongly recommends greater engagement with young people through social media, especially females, and provision of workexperience days for the school students to help them learn more about the industry at early stage. Such factors need to be incorporated in government and industry strategies for dealing with the skill-shortages in the Construction industry.
We have implemented since 2016 a “Program to grow the development skills of engineering students in extracurricular activities of vehicle manufacturing”. In this program, our students produced not only their own vehicles, but also the apparatus to evaluate vehicle friction, and then presented and discussed their development results with researchers and engineers in domestic and international conferences. As a result, our students improved their development skills in a logical manner, enhanced their communication skills, obtained new technical information, and gained the chance to lead to the next development.
John Dewey who knows as a theoretical leader of an American progressive education (John Dewey1859-1952) was invited to University of Chicago as the head professor of the philosophy. He established The Laboratory School of the University of Chicago in 1896. It was called "The Dewey school", "Experimental school" and "The Dewey Experimental School" . He led this pedagogical "experiment" as a director until he resigned from University of Chicago in 1904.
The curriculum of "The Dewey experimental school" was based on home life and social action. Children from 4 years old to 15 years old, could discover a system of technology and engineering by learning activity such as handicrafts, technology, industry, science and manufacturing step by step.
This paper tries to make it clear that theory of Dewey is practiced in Japanese technology and manufacturing education. It focuses on Arts and Crafts of elementary school and considers the relation between the class contents and the theory of John Dewey.
The poor economic efficiency of construction projects worldwide, has proven to be an insurmountable problem for the industry. Also, nowadays, construction projects are increasingly becoming more complex, thereby, stressing even more on time, quality and cost. This generally leads to a much wider discrepancy between the estimated cost and actual cost of the project, overall. The onus of this falls on the feasibility process. The review of the literature to date, carried out in this study, indicates that feasibility is deemed as a process which generally spans over from initiation through conceptual and detailed design to planning and scheme of works. No study has been found which takes the span of the feasibility up to the handover stage of a construction cycle. This study focuses on the dimensions, scope, and implications of a conventional feasibility process and proposes a conceptual model to enhance beyond its typical framework. This model is developed following the data empirically collected from project management experts in the construction industry. The data was analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively to identify the most significant challenges in the way of effective and efficient feasibility exercises, which includes varying aspects of lack of communication. Furthermore, PMBOK and Prince2 approaches (two new, fast growing concepts of project management) are integrated innovatively for the first time specifically in the context of feasibility science. This way, the study produces an innovative conceptual model of feasibility by expanding its boundaries beyond and above the conventional limitations and also strongly suggesting that a feasibility process needs to be more iterative than it has typically been. This can improve the productivity (both efficiency and effectiveness) of a feasibility process.
There are many students in the mechanical design classes. Also, there are multiple teachers and teaching assistants. Therefore, it is difficult for each faculty member to know the progress status of each student and teaching from each faculty member. In response to this, we created a design portfolio that keeps track of the student's approach, calculation process, and what was taught, so that teachers can make appropriate guidance according to each student's progress. It was used to provide individual guidance. In addition, We created a program to support design calculation and used it to teach design calculation. Also, because there are more students than faculty members, we have developed an RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) based input system so that teachers can check the work of students without waiting for the students. By monitoring the progress of the student's design portfolio using the RFID of the system, the teacher was able to discuss and guide each of all students (around 80 in total) in the class time. In this paper, we introduce a case study using RFID system developed to make design calculation program more effective in the mechanical design classes.
Japan is aging at a speed unprecedented among the major developed countries and is transforming into a super-aged society. There is an urgent need to respond to this situation, and the demand for a safer, securer and better lifestyle has also increased. Sensing functions are being equipped to main home appliances, also by connecting them to the networks through the Internet of Things (IoT) technology, we can monitor not only the living environment, but also the health condition of people. By connecting these devices with a wearable, noninvasive, and low-cost measurable medical devices along with analyzing biometric information data using Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology, it is possible to provide telemedicine such as health condition management, disease prediction, and a better support for healthcare. In this paper, we discuss technologies such as IoT, AI, Virtual Reality/Augmented Reality (VR/AR), noninvasive biometric information measurement technology, and HMI/BMI for a human-friendly system design for telemedicine and healthcare support. We also introduce the development of advanced healthcare products using these technologies.
It is generally believed that human age / generation gap may well play a role of a "disabler" in a (new) technology adoption. Similarly, despite BIM (Building Information Modelling) has been around for well over a decade, still the uptake of this technological approach is not fast enough even in developed countries, such as the UK, for which generation gap is deemed as one of the main reasons. However, in the literature review to date, no evidence has been found of a study on the impact of human factors, specifically in conjunction with human age / generation gap on the uptake of the BIM technology.
This study investigates the generational differences in perceptions in the context of BIM held by experts who are current or former professionals in the AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction) industry. In order to conduct this investigation, based on existing Technology Acceptance Models (TAMs), a quantitative survey / questionnaire is designed and developed. This survey integrates human factors (including self-efficacy, technology affordance, perceived quality and data protection) specifically with the generation gap factor and yet particularly in connection to BIM. The survey establishes whether age plays a role in the adoption rate of BIM while the target group were AEC professionals.
The results of this research reveals that the ideas about BIM adoption with respect to the human generation gap and its influence on the technology adoption in general are not typically true. In other words, the research demonstrates that the uptake of BIM is not being hindered by age or generation gap, overall. Therefore, other factors need to be studied in more detail, in order to establish whether they have an influence on the uptake of the BIM technology, such as the society as a whole (e.g. governance) and general human nature of reluctance to change, independent of age.
The new ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system is proposed, aiming at lower initial cost by utilizing shallow geothermal energy. Foundation piles of 5 m from the ground surface were used for underground piles with heat exchanger pipes. This GSHP system has been operated since 2015 in Fukui city for heating in winter and cooling in summer. The system coefficient of performance (SCOP) for the heating in 2015 winter was 3.29, while initial cost was estimated to be 39 % decreased compared to conventional GSHP system.
In this study, we investigated 100% biomass fuels as an alternative to conventional jet fuels, focusing on ethanol/BDF mixed fuels. First, we measured the viscosity of the mixed fuels and determined its dependence on the BDF concentration. As a result, it was found that with BDF concentrations above 50%, the viscosity increases greatly as the temperature decreases, showing that BDF-rich concentrations are not suitable as jet fuel alternatives. Next, using ethanol-rich mixed fuels with BDF concentrations of 50% and lower, we performed tests with a micro gas turbine. After comparing the SFC with different BDF concentrations, we found that the fuel with BDF concentration of 50% had the closest SFC to conventional jet fuels. From these results, it is possible that the 50% ethanol/BDF mixed fuel is the most suitable alternative to conventional jet fuels. However, because a large amount of particulate matter was observed in the exhaust gas, it is problematic to use the mixed fuel directly in existing jet engines.
In the disaster areas of the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred in March 2011, electric power supply was stopped by the collapse of electric power plants and disconnection of electrical wires. So residents were forced to live without the heating. As a countermeasure of a possible future disaster, we designed and manufactured a rocket stove that can heat and cook without using fossil fuels in this research. The rocket stove can burn efficiently the waste wood that is difficult to consume and can be manufactured at low cost. The performance tests were carried out using three types of fuel, firewood, branches and wood pellets. In the performance tests, the temperature change of various part of the stove was measured, and the combustion characteristics by the difference of fuels were considered. Furthermore, to utilize effectively the waste heat that is discarded in the environment, we tried to generate the electric power using a thermoelectric conversion module. First, we experimented on the load resistances of the thermoelectric conversion module using a hot plate as a heat source to evaluate the performance of the module. In this experiment, the generated electric power corresponding to the temperature difference between the high-temperature and low-temperature side of a thermoelectric conversion module were clarified.
In recent years, environmental problems such as global warming and depletion of fossil fuels are coming to the surface. One of these problems’ solutions is to use a renewable energy and waste heat of factories, and it becomes possible to reduce a consumption of fossil fuels. Therefore, this can lead to a reduction of the carbon dioxide emission which is a cause of the global warming. In this background, we have been focusing on a Stirling engine. It is an external combustion engine which can operate using various heat sources. Meanwhile, the Stirling engine is relatively safe, because it does not explode during operating like a gasoline engine. From these viewpoints, we think that the Stirling engine is useful for the engineering education on an environment subject at school.
In this paper, we introduce a model of α-type Stirling engine car. This model is designed and manufactured for the aim of enlightening of the Stirling engine and the application of a teaching material. In addition, we worked to program a performance simulation based on Ideal Schmidt Theory. This program makes it possible to easily calculate the theoretical outputs of the Stirling engine by inputting parameters, such as the stroke of piston, the volume of expansion space and compression space, the heating and cooling temperature. Therefore, this program is useful to assist students with a poor knowledge on the designing of the Stirling engine.
We clarified the effects of various parameters on engine outputs by using this program.
The purposes of this study are to develop a device to learn the mechanism of solar heat power generation, which is one of renewable energy, and to propose a learning process using the device. Developed solar heat power generation device collects solar heat energy in thermal storage medium using reflector plates, and generates electricity using Peltier element modules. A heat sink and a cooling fan are installed on the cooling side of the Peltier module, and then the temperature difference has occurred here. As a result of the experimental class, it is considered that this system becomes a good teaching tool to make students consider the efficient use of energy.