Journal of the Japanese Society of Soil Physics
Online ISSN : 2435-2497
Print ISSN : 0387-6012
Volume 95
Showing 1-11 articles out of 11 articles from the selected issue
  • [in Japanese]
    2003 Volume 95 Pages 1-2
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 06, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (411K)
  • Manzo Uchigasaki, Shingo Miyamoto, Kazuhiro Serata, Sheishu Tojo, Keng ...
    2003 Volume 95 Pages 3-11
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 06, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    A new, simple method for evaluating and quantifying the peripheral root and its architecture was developed and applied to tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedlings. This method consists of the use of a transparent tray cell and application of shade in roots, using an image analysis system. The objectives of this study were to :(1)develop an in-situ measurement technique using machine vision technology for the quantification of the peripheral root growth of seedlings using transparent tray cells ; (2) to develop a program to analyze the Peripheral Root Density and Distribution (PRDD) ; and (3) to study the characteristics of the seedling root system in an air-pruning tray cell. The specific PRDD value was calculated for the air-pruning tray cell and a non-air-pruning tray cell and five stages of the seedling. Analysis of the results showed that this method can be useful for evaluating peripheral root architecture in different designs of tray cell and can be used not only to analyze the effect of air-pruning but also to determine the efficient size and design of tray cells.
    Download PDF (4181K)
  • Susumu Matsukawa, Hidemasa Katou
    2003 Volume 95 Pages 13-20
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 06, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Ammonium sulfate or ammonium nitrate solution was added repetitiously in volcanic ash soil. The difference in amount of anion adsorption or cation desorption, and the change in pH were compared with the simulated results by the four plane model. pH of soil solution was lowered by the addition of the ammonium nitrate solution, and pH was increased in the ammonium sulfate solution. The amount of desorption of the base cation in the ammonium nitrate solution was large than that of ammonium sulfate solution addition. The adsorbed amount of sulfate ion was increased, even if pH rose in the ammonium sulfate solution addition. The amount of sulfate ion adsorption was depended on concentration, and that didn’t depend on hydrogen ion concentration by adaptation of regression equation that composed with anion and hydrogen ion concentration. Sulfate and nitrate ion adsorption calculated by the four plain model were corresponded to the measurements well. Comparing the simulated charge density at each plain, addition of ammonium sulfate solution was large than that of ammonium nitrate solution addition. In the case of ammonium sulfate solution addtion, amount of hydrogen ion adsorption on S plain was large than that of hydroxyl ion compared with ammonium nitrate solution addition. These simulated results correspond with the pH measurements.
    Download PDF (1059K)
  • Junichi Kashiwagi
    2003 Volume 95 Pages 21-32
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 06, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to appreciate the spatial variability of upland soil profile on complex hillslope and to consider the adequacy of geomorphological information to explain the soil profile distribution. On a 1.2-ha upland field of central Hokkaido, Soil profile was investigated at 154 locations on a 14-m grid. Apparent differences were recognized according to the location on a slope position. In the landsurface model units of Interfluve and Convex Creep Slope, horizon sequence was Ap/C-type, the color of Ap-horizon soil in this area was relatively bright and coarse texture. In the units of Colluvial Footslope and Alluvial Toeslope, horizon sequence was Ap/Ab/B/C-type, the Ap-horizon soil color was relatively dark and fine texture influenced by sedimentation. Terrain attributes, slope gradient, slope curvature, specific catchment area etc, calculated from the 7m-digital elevation model were highly correlated with A-horizon thickness except for slope gradient. Thick A-horizon was observed at the location which topographic conditions were convex slope, low altitude and high specific catchment area. The multiple regression model of A-horizon thickness by terrain attributes didn’t have sufficient result for quantitative tool. However landsurface model units identified the A-horizon thickness distribution. Geomorphological analisys is useful to guide soil management system with consideration of spatial variability.
    Download PDF (1059K)
  • Kouji Kameyama, Susumu Matsukawa, Tomoyasu Ishida, Hidemasa Kato
    2003 Volume 95 Pages 33-40
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 06, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The prediction method of ion concentration in the effluent during permeation of acid solutions involving multiple anionic species into volcanic ash soil was examined in this study. The method for prediction was composed of chemical reactions between acid solution and soil, and Mixing cell model, which approximately describe solute transport in soil. The results were summarized in the following. 1) The model could simulate well pH and monovalent anions (NO3- + Cl-) in the effluent during permeation of acid solutions involving NO3-, Cl- and SO42- into soil column. This shows that it is possible to handle sum of NO3_ and Cl- as a monovalent anion. 2) The simulation results agreed well with the measured values of pH and concentration of anions and BC2+ (sum total of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+) in the effluent. Therefore, it seemed that simulation model used in this study is useful for predicting the main effects when acid rain including multiple anionic species deposited on the Kanto loam subsoil.
    Download PDF (957K)
  • Xiaoyan Liu, [in Japanese], Takao Amaya, Tingxi Liu
    2003 Volume 95 Pages 41-54
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 08, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    In this study, soil surveys and water retention measurements were conducted on a wide range of soil textures sampled from thirty one locations in the central hinterland of Horqin sandy land. Because the measured water retention curves belong to intermediate scanning curves between the main desorption and sorption processes, some precautions on measurement and application of the water retention curves were suggested. All soils in survey sites were classified into nine soil types. The average water retention curve of each soil type could be sufficiently approximated by using van Genuchten formula (vG-I). Their saturated and residual volumetric water contents (θs, θr) increased with clay contents of soil groups. It was confirmed that the shape of their water retention curves are reflected precisely by the parameters ε and ν that describe the degree of the first and second inflection curvatures of vG-I, respectively. Pedotransfer functions in the survey area were estimated using the water retention curves for the nine soil types by the function parameter regression method. The parameters of the fittedwater retention curves using vG-1 and vG-II (assumed m =l in vG-I)were known to have quite good regression relations with the indexes of soil physical and chemical properties. Particularly, the accuracy of estimation was found to increase when the regression formulas of ε and ν were substituted for m and n in vG-I. Therefore, PTF is an efficient method for estimating the water retention curves for different sites in the survey area.
    Download PDF (2756K)
  • Afandi, Didin Wiharso, Masateru Senge, Adomako John Tawiah, Tadashi A ...
    2003 Volume 95 Pages 55-62
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 08, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Research was conducted on the red soils formed from young intermediary to mafic volcanic materials that occupy the hilly areas of South Sumatra, Indonesia within the humid tropical climate. This research was aimed at investigating the influences of different soil cover crops on soil morphology and soil properties after four years treatment as well as examining the probable changes in the soil taxonomy. Three soil profiles were made in the middle of erosion plots after 4 years treatment with different soil cover crops under coffee trees. The treatment plots were ; T-l, keeping the ground bare by hand weeding at two weeks interval (coffee without cover crop); T-2, Coffee with Paspalum conjugatum as cover crop and T-3, coffee with natural weeds as cover crops. The soil profiles were described and sampled according to Soil Survey Manual(1993) and Soil Taxonomy Classification System (1998). It was observed that after 4 years, soil surface layer had become thicker and darker than before. Almost all the soil chemical properties in soil surface layer increased, particularly soil pH, organic carbon content, total nitrogen, available P, exchangeable bases, and base saturation. On the other hand, exchangeable Al and Al saturation of soil surface layer decreased. Although several soil characteristics changed during the study period, it was evident that 4 years treatment was too short to change soil taxonomy of the three pedons in sub-group category. In the sub-group category, all pedons were still classified as Vertic Dystrudepts. Covering soil surface by natural weeds was able to increase exchangeable bases and base saturation in the sub- surface layer, therefore over a long period of time there will be a possibility of the changing the soil taxonomy from Vertic Dystrudepts to Eutrudepts in the great soil group category.
    Download PDF (551K)
  • Krissandi Wijaya, Taku Nishimura, Makoto Kato
    2003 Volume 95 Pages 63-73
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 08, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    It is worthy to know the distribution of soil physical properties in the field to gain better understanding of soil behavior. However, taking undisturbed core samples in situ is usually laborious and time consuming. In this study, estimation of dry bulk density of soil by using Amplitude Domain Reflectometry (ADR) data was conducted. The dry bulk density can be calculated by combining volumetric water content measured by using the ADR probe {θADR} with either wet bulk density or mass wetness. Andisol (TUAT soil) and Alluvial soil (Fukaya soil, Saitama) was used in this study. Soils were sieved through 3 mm mesh screen, and packed into a plastic acrylic cylinder of 68 mm in inner diameter and 69 mm long. Mass wetness ranged from 40-70% and 15-30%, and packing dry bulk density ranged from 0.39-0.96gem-3 and 0.78-1.30gem-3, for the TUAT and the Fukaya soil, respectively. Three replicated ADR readings of output voltage were measured by using a digital multimeter. The θADR was calculated by using a calibrated polynomial equation, as a function of the averaged output voltage. The results showed that the output voltage was not affected by neither packing dry bulk density nor mass wetness. The estimation of dry bulk density with wet bulk density (R2 value=0.989-0.994, RMSE value=0.010-0.014gem-3) was better than that with mass wetness (R2 value = 0.913-0.961, RMSE value=0.027-0.038gem-3). The accuracy of the θADR was a critical factor in estimating dry bulk density.
    Download PDF (760K)
  • Magdi Khalil, Masaru Sakai, Masaru Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi Miyazaki
    2003 Volume 95 Pages 75-90
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 08, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Zero flux plane (ZFP) method has been used to measure and estimate the evaporation, evapotranspiration, some hydrological process etc. However, no systematic discussion has been made concerning the ZFP method itself or its application to monitor and control the salt and contamination movement. In this study, comprehensive analysis on existing data sets have been performed to examine ZFP method applications and to give comments for further applications in future. First, ZFP method definition and its mathematical derivation were stated. Second, the application of ZFP to evaporation, evapotranspiration and ground water recharge process were discussed and analyzed. The difficulties that affect the application of ZFP method such as depth of soil, preciseness of measurements etc. have been listed and compared. Finally the potentialities of ZFP method were discussed. The discussion showed that, the development of new techniques related to measurement instruments, required experiments and simulations to implement ZFP in effective way is very important to monitor and control salt transportation and accumulation control.
    Download PDF (1029K)
  • [in Japanese]
    2003 Volume 95 Pages 91-92
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 08, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (413K)
  • [in Japanese]
    2003 Volume 95 Pages 95
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 08, 2021
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (357K)
feedback
Top