The aim of this article is to identify the new sources of Tama-kushige (1695) and Tama-hahaki (1696) by Hayashi-Gitan, a writer and Confucian scholar of the Kogidō School who was also engaged in publishing business. In Tama-kushige, for example, the “Unrin-in” chapter (4-4) was based on Narihira-yume-monogatari, and the two chapters “Sanchū-no-reijin” (6-1) and the “Suisei-no-juzu” (6-2) on Zoku-eni-hen. In this way the author borrowed wholly or partially from other books and combined them into his own stories. Although it is often said that Hayashi used easily available books for his writing, he actually had access to rare books, both Japanese and Chinese, through his religious, publishing, and literary network. When Hayashi was at work on publishing “hakuwa” Chinese novels in his later years, he utilized some latest ones for his own works. Eventually he played an important role in the fad for “hakuwa” fiction in the mid-Edo Period.
Kurita-Chodō (1749-1814), a wealthy merchant of Matsuyama, was also a poet widely known as one of Katō-Kyōtai’s disciples. This article examines his editorial intention in Heisō-shū, his only published poetry collection in 1812, in comparison with Sekkō-shū, his unpublished collection in 1807. While Sekkō-shū was an anthology, Heisō-shū is a private collection intended for the confession of the poet’s dissipated life through the biographical sketch of Matsuo-Bashō. The inscription of “fūryū-zaika (artistic sin)” on the front page refers to his dissolute life with no regard for fame and wealth. After the style of Bashō, Kurita provided a preface to each poem in which poetical phrases are elaborately integrated into realistic descriptions. His preference for the old master’s hermit life reflects the philosophy of “fūryū-zaika” which dictates that all secular affairs must be disregarded for art’s sake.
The aim of this article is to consider the relation between Fukushū-kidan-asaka-no-numa (1803) and “kusazōshi” revenge fiction, mainly focusing on the seventh and eighth chapters about the revenge of the ghost of Kohada-Koheiji. Few previous studies of the “yomihon” novel identify its sources clearly enough, but obviously in writing it Santō-Kyōden borrowed from Nansenshō-Somahito’s revenge story Katakiuchi-okitsu-siranami (1799). He also made use of it as a sort of reference book for the melodramatic techniques of popular fiction in the hope of gaining wider readership. Indeed the novel’s plot composed of the “combination of revenge and horror” reveals such a desire for popularity. The influence of “kusazōshi” revenge fiction on Fukushū-kidan-asaka-no-numa thus sheds a new light on Kyōden’s profile as a writer.
The aim of this article is to place Tōsei-hyakka-sen, a poetry anthology edited in 1855 by Tada-Kiyooki, in the contemporary historical context for the analysis of cultural factors behind its composition, publication, and reception which provides the key to understanding the poetical scene of the late Edo Period. Tada selected works mainly from the famous Kokugaku and Keien poets because he wanted to make a good anthology for his dead father. Nagasawa-Tomoo, one of the major poet-editors in the age of thematic poetry collections, took an active role in publishing it in Wakayama. The existence of its variant editions reflects political instability in the Kishū domain which caused Nagasawa’s downfall and imprisonment. The anthology contained the works of a hundred excellent poets from all parts of the country after the style of Ogura-hyakunin-isshu; the carefully selected works made it more authentic than any other collection published at that time. In this sense, Tōsei-hyakka-sen pointed to a new direction in literary journalism, for it facilitated the collaboration between the publishing industry and the poetical circles, both mainstream and local, which expanded in number all over the country.