Recently, the need for outpatient nursing services attached to general clinics has increased because of the shortening of hospitalization periods and the promotion of home care. The number of outpatients in the field of oral surgery is expected to continue increasing as the number of elderly patients increases and hospitalization periods decrease; therefore, the quality of outpatient nursing services must be improved. In the present study, a questionnaire was distributed to dental university hospitals, to clarify the present condition of outpatient nursing services in the department of oral surgery. The results of the survey showed that nurses routinely provide treatment at oral surgery outpatient clinics, where they perform pre-hospitalization orientations, consultations, and instruction and guidance for patients. Outpatient nurses must be able to help a wide range of patients, from children to the elderly; the contents of the consultations, instructions and guidance performed by the nurses, are also wide-ranging, including social life issues and oral disability rehabilitation. Thus, the various types of support care performed by nurses play an important role in the efficacy of oral surgery outpatient clinics, by contributing to maintenance and improvement of patients' social life and quality of life. However, the survey also found that outpatient services sometimes suffer from a lack of resources, including personnel and facilities. Furthermore, a fee-charging system for nursing services does not presently exist. Active cooperation between dental professionals and oral surgery clinic nurses, and strong appeals to hospital administrative departments, are thus necessary to resolve these problems.
In February 2000, we examined the oral health status of 578 government employees (males 408, females 170) . We also asked them to complete questionnaires on oral health. The following results were obtained. Of the total sample, 39.2% had a family dentist. There were significantly more women, and older workers, who had a family dentist. The reasons to visit family dentists were “treatment (75.9%), ”“prevention (14.4%), ”and “regular checkups (8.8%) .” Workers who had family dentists had more filled teeth and fewer present teeth than those without family dentists, and the difference was significant. Less than half (42.7%) of the workers were receiving dental checkups regularly, more commonly at the work site (76.3%) than by family dentists (22.4%) . There was no significant difference in oral health status between workers who received / did not receive regular dental checkups. Workers who repeatedly went to the clinic for treatment considered their dentist as a “family dentist.” This indicated that dental professionals and ordinary people have a different concept of a “family dentist.” The habit of visiting a dentist regularly seeking checkups and prevention is not yet popular. To improve this condition, it would be necessary to undertake efforts to change the concept on family dentists for both patients and dental professionals, to improve the school oral health system, to use mass dental examination at work sites effectively, and to reform the health insurance system to be preventionoriented.
The role of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) in survival kinetics and radioresistance of fibroblasts in a severely hypoxic environment (partial oxygen pressure of less than 3 mmHg) was analyzed, in both low and high cell-density conditions. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts R (-), with a targeted disruption of the IGF-IR gene, and R (+) cells, derived from R (-) cells stably transfected with a plasmid containing a human IGF-IR cDNA, were used for this purpose. Survival time in hypoxia was longer in R (+) cells than R (-) cells, which correlated with highly elevated expression of caspase 3-like activity in R (-) cells, but not with HIF-I α expression. Under euoxia, R (+) cells were more radioresistant, by a factor of 1.9, than R (-) cells. Under hypoxia, R (+) cells became more radioresistant, with an oxygen-enhancement ratio (OER) of 2.7, than R (-) cells, with an OER of 1.5, in a low cell density. However, unexpected hyper-radiosensitivity in hypoxia was observed for both R (+) and R (-) cells in a high cell density, which further increased with incubation time in hypoxia following X-irradiation. The hyper-radiosensitivity was more pronounced for R (-) cells. The result thus implies that IGF-IR may be an important target molecule for radioresistant tumors in radiotherapy.
Bacteroides forsythus is known as a periodontopathogen associated with periodontitis, and it produces a tripsin-like protease, cell-death inducing factor, and sialidase (neuraminidase), as putative virulence factors. The purpose of this study was to clone the sialidase gene from B. forsythus ATCC 43037, and to analyze the biological characteristics. A positive clone (pHI-1) was successfully isolated, among a total of 455 recombinant clones, using a filter paper sialidase assay with the fluorogenic sialidase substrate 2' - (4-methylumbelliferyl) - a -D-N-acetylneuraminic acid (MUNeuNAc) . Sequencing of the inserted DNA of pHI-1 (3.2kbp) was carried out, and analysis of the sequence with DNASIS software revealed that the ORF (designated siaHI: 1.4kbp) would code for the protein with a deduced molecular mass of 52kDa and a pI of 6.60. Furthermore, we confirmed that siaHI gene was contained in chromosomal DNA from B. forsythus ATCC 43037 and the 3 clinical isolates of B. forsythus. The highest amino acid sequence homology was observed between siaHI gene and a part of sialidase gene from Streptococcus pnumoniae. This is the first report on the cloning and expression of the B. forsythus sialidase gene.
Grafting utilizing corpus adiposum buccae is frequently performed to reconstruct defects in the oral region, and it is known that transplantation that uses corpus adiposum buccae obtains an excellent histological result. Observation was done aiming to clarify the macroscopic and microscopic features of corpus adiposum buccae, using 23 sides of Japanese adult cadavers, and the results were as follows: 1) It was found that there were autonomic ganglia-like structures, composed of nervous cells, in corpus adiposum buccae. 2) Corpus adiposum buccae had a blood circulating system that promoted excellent adaptation and histodifferentiat ion in the transplanted region. 3) It seemed that corpus adiposum buccae had structural features of a blood circulatory system and interlobular connective tissue that enabled avoidance of graft damage when corpus adiposum buccae was transplanted.
The p300 and closely related CBP acetyltransferases function as global transcriptional coactivators and play important roles in a broad spectrum of biological processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation. The p300 protein is targeted by viral oncoproteins, and mutations of the p300 gene associated with second allele inactivation have been identified in certain types of human cancers and carcinomas. This study shows that 300 mutants identified in human carcinoma cells retain the capacity to bind p300/CBP interacting proteins, E1A, PCAF, and Smads. However, carcinoma cell lines expressing only mutant p300 severely impaired transcriptional responses to some signaling, including that of TGF β, which responses have been shown to be mediated by p300 and CBP. Furthermore, tumor-derived p300 mutants did not affect the proliferation of p300-deficient cells in the presence or absence of TGF β. These results suggest that p300 plays an important role in epithelial carcinogenesis by mediating transcription that negatively regulates cell proliferation.
E2FBP1, an ARID (AT-rich interaction domain) family protein, has been isolated as a protein that interacts with E2F-1, a member for the E2F family transcription factor. The closely related Bright binds to specific AT-rich DNA sequences and regulates B-cell-specific gene expression. Although Bright is specifically expressed in differentiating and matured B cells, E2FBP1 is expressed ubiquitously in a variety of tissues, suggesting that. E2FBP1 plays a role in different biological processes. However, the function of E2FBP1 remains largely unknown. The present work showed that expression of E2FBP1 protein was up-regulated by forced expression of p53, and its expression levels were low, in tumor cells lacking wild-type p53. Furthermore, E2FBP1 levels were increased following DNA damage, in parallel with levels of p53 and p21Wafl/Cipl. In addition, coimmunoprecipitation assays indicated that E2FBP1 could interact with p53 in vivo. These results suggest the possibility that E2FBP1 is involved in the p53 regulatory pathway.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate oral health promotion activities at the work site, for three years. The subjects were 486 workers (men, 340; women, 146) and the mean age was 27.0. We examined the oral health status of the subjects once a year for three years from 1997 to 1999. We also asked them to complete questionnaires on oral health symptoms and health behavior. After oral health examinations, oral health education programs were provided at the work site. The following results were obtained. 1. During the three years, the oral health symptoms of the workers decreased, and the number of workers who practiced good oral health behavior increased. 2. No difference was observed on the status of teeth during the three years, but the oral hygiene and the periodontal status of the subjects improved significantly (p<0.001) . 3. The participant rate for oral health education programs was 15.8%. Workers who had better oral health status and health behavior had a higher participation rate in the education programs. 4. The workers who participated in dental education programs used interdental brushes more often than those without education programs. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05) . Oral health promotion programs at the work site were usually provided using a group approach. But to enhance oral health awareness, combination with individual approaches might be necessary.