Trichophyton mentagrophytes is epidemiologically divided into two distinct forms, zoophilic and anthropophilic. The zoophilic isolates of T.mentagrophytes have generally been identified by morphological and biochemical examination as well as through mating experiments. The confirmed teleomorphs of the zoophilic isolates of the T.mentagrophytes complex are Arthroderma benhamiae, A. simii and A. vanbreuseghemii. On the other hand, no teleomorph has been identified in an anthropophilic isolate of T. mentagrophytes, such as T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (T. interdigitale) or in the other anthropophilic strains. In the present study, the mating type (MAT) (－)-specific gene of the MAT1-1 (alpha-box) and the MAT (＋)-specific gene of the MAT1-2 (high-mobility-group : HMG) DNA binding domain were confirmed in zoophilic dermatophytes of A. benhamiae, A. simii and A. vanbreuseghemii. The sequence of the MAT1-1 was about 1.3kbp, containing 2 exons in the A. benhamiae, A. simii and A. vanbreuseghemii (－) mating type strain. The sequence of the MAT1-2 was 1.9 kbp, containing 2 exons in the A. benhamiae, A. simii and A. vanbreuseghemii (＋) mating type strain. Of 15 animal isolates and 72 human isolates examined, the MAT1-1 was detected in 5 of the animal isolates and in none of the human isolates, while the MAT1-2 was detected in the other 10 of the animal isolates and in all of the human isolates. These results indicate that anthropophilic T. mentagrophytes evolved from the A. vanbreuseghemii (＋) mating strain.
More than 10 years have passed since Trichophyton tonsurans infection first began to increase in Japan. Initially the infection was confined to high school and university students participating in combat sports clubs, but it has now spread among the athletes' family members and friends. In a recent survey, 10% of Judo athletes tested positive for Trichophyton tonsurans; most were asymptomatic carriers. T.tonsurans infection usually causes tinea corporis or tinea capitis, but lesions can occur on other sites, causing tinea unguim, tinea manus, etc . The course of infection is usually only mildly symptomatic, and individuals with long-term infection can become asymptomatic carriers. It is likely that many individuals are unaware that they have Trichophyton tonsurans infection. The number of individuals infected with clear without repeating is difficult to assess due to the complexity of the fungal culture process. Diagnosis is made by direct examination in KOH and culture, and treatment consists of topical and / or oral antifungals. Prevention of Trichophyton tonsurans infection through increased awareness of the disease and careful hygiene is important.
An epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses and the causative fungus flora of dermatomycoses in Japan for 2006 was made on a total number of 63,029 outpatients who visited 16 dermatological clinics throughout Japan. The results were as follows. 1) Dermatophytosis was the most prevalent cutaneus fungal infection (7,582 cases) seen in these clinics, followed by candidiasis (842 cases) and then Malassezia infections (283 cases). 2) Among dermatophytoses, tinea pedis was the most frequent (4,779 cases : male 2,358, female 2,241), then in decreasing order, tinea unguium (2,582 cases : male 1,376, female 1,206), tinea corporis (564 cases : male 341, female 223), tinea cruris (309 cases : male 254, female 57), tinea manuum (145 cases : male 92, female 53), and tinea capitis including kerion (17 cases : male12, female 5). 3) Tinea pedis and tinea unguium are seen to increase in the summer season, among the aged population. When compared to the last survey 2002 by clinical form, t. unguium patients increased 459 cases. 4) As the causative dermatophyte species, Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated among all dermatophyte infections except tinea capitis. Microsporum canis was slightly increased. M.gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum are small number. T.tonsurans was increased up to 37 cases. 5) Cutaneous candidiasis was seen in 842 cases (305 male, 537 female). Intertrigo (298 cases) was the most frequent clinical form, followed by erosion interdigitalis (136 cases), oral candidiasis (135 cases), onychia et paronychia (108 cases), genital and diaper candidiasis in total (88 cases). 6) Tinea versicolor was seen in 175 cases. Malassezia folliculitis were collected 108 cases, 63 cases are reported from one clinic.
Some yeast agents including Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata have a role in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. We studied the frequency of both common and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in symptomatic cases which were referred to Urmia Medical Sciences University related gynecology clinics using morphologic and molecular methods. The aim of this study was the identification of Candida species isolated from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis cases using a rapid and reliable molecular method. Vaginal swabs obtained from each case, were cultured on differential media including cornmeal agar and CHROM agar Candida. After 48 hours at 37℃, the cultures were studied for growth characteristics and color production respectively. All isolates were identified using the molecular method of PCR - restriction fragment length polymorphism. Among all clinical specimens, we detected 19 ( 16 % ) non fungal agents, 87 ( 82.1 % ) yeasts and 2 ( 1.9 % ) multiple infections. The yeast isolates identified morphologically included Candida albicans ( n = 62 ), Candida glabrata ( n = 9 ), Candida tropicalis ( n = 8 ), Candida parapsilosis ( n = 8 ) and Candida guilliermondii and Candida krusei ( n = 1 each ). We also obtained very similar results for Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis as the most common clinical isolates, by using PCR - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Use of two differential methods, morphologic and molecular, enabled us to identify most medically important Candida species which particularly cause recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.
This study investigated the effects of cinnamaldehyde in combatting the hyphal growth of Candidaalbicans under varying concentrations, treatment times, and temperatures to determine the potential benefits of applying this substance to anti-Candida foods or gargles. From the results of pretreatment with cinnamaldehyde against Candida hyphae, we found that its inhibitory activity seemed to be strengthened in parallel with prolonged pretreatment time and a rise in temperature, and that pretreatment of 2,000μg/ml for only 1 minute significantly inhibited the hyphal growth of C.albicans. We also demonstrated by XTT assay that pretreatment with cinnamaldehyde affected the metabolic activity of Candida hyphal cells. These findings suggest that a warm drink or mouthwash containing cinnamaldehyde might be a candidate as a prophylactic or therapeutic tool against oral Candida infection.
Onychomyosis caused by Aspergillus sydowii is rare and difficult to diagnose. We report a case in which this disease was diagnosed by molecular-biological methods. The patient was a 53-year-old woman without any notable past history. She visited our hospital complaining of itching around the right first toenail in June 2010, although she had noticed nail opacification for 4 years. Opaque thickening of the nail, covering 57.3% of the normal nail area, was observed. Direct microscopic examination revealed thick mycelia with septa and black spores. While colonies with a red brown center and a grayish blue-green margin were observed in culture on Sabouraud ' s glucose agar at 25℃, radially arranged conidia in the conidial head were observed in slide culture. Thus, onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus was suspected. There were no blood or biochemical test abnormalities. We directly extracted deoxyribonucleic acid from the nail and analyzed the base sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 regions of the ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene, and identified Aspergillussydowii. Because the minimal inhibitory concentration of itraconazole (ITCZ) is 0.25μg/ml, we administered pulse therapy with monthly 1-week cycles of oral ITCZ 400 mg / day for 3 consecutive months. The opaque area subsided to 17. 9% of the normal nail by 6 months after treatment completion. However, 3 months later, the opaque area increased again to 22. 3%, and the same fungus was isolated and identified. The 3-month ITCZ pulse therapy was repeated and the symptoms disappeared, with complete cure achieved by 3 months after the second therapy.
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