High ethical standards must be maintained by scientists during the publication of articles. Incorrect information,
particularly in the medical sciences, might cause potential harm to human health irrespective of whether the information was generated by intentional misconduct or unintentional negligence. Three major misconducts, collectively known as F.F.P., are forgery (writing based on non-existing data), falsification, and plagiarism. In addition,
publication of duplicated material is prohibited even in different languages because the worldwide connectivity
via the Internet and availability of artificial intelligence-based translation systems enable every scientist to reach
any article. A checker software can easily detect plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, which is then visible to
journal editors, referees, and readers. The falsification of guest authors or laboratory leaders/chairpersons and/or
the mention of ghost authors as contributors to a material for publication is also prohibited. In order to avoid false
accusations of data fabrication, original laboratory notes, raw data, and photographic evidence must be retained.
If new research has the potential to be made available to the scientific community, authors are requested to search
preceding publications using Pubmed or any other suitable scientific search engine in order to emphasize the
novelty of their study. Salami studies (use of limited data or the results from a single study to release multiple
articles) and Imalas papers (those that arrive at the same conclusion only by increasing sample numbers) are also
Scientific and publication fraud can occasionally lead to the loss of a scientist’s livelihood resulting from
demotion, dismissal, or suspension of research funding. It is thus imperative that strict standards are adhered to
from the very beginning, starting with university students, residents, and post graduate students.
Although video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery has been widely used in the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax, the rate of postoperative recurrence at the staple line has been reported to be relatively high only by bullectomy. In our hospital, we have performed a method that covers the staple line with a polyglycolic acid (PGA)
sheet. The aim of this study was to evaluate this method and cases of postoperative recurrence. We retrospectively
analyzed 177 patients (180 sides) under the age of 40 years, who presented with primary spontaneous pneumothorax between January 2004 and December 2016. These patients underwent thoracoscopic closure of the air leakage
with a PGA sheet. Recurrence occurred in 6 cases (3.3%). Four of the 6 sides underwent reoperation. There was
no air leakage at the location covered by the PGA sheet. Considering the intraoperative findings, newly formed
bullae at the upper lobe and segment 6 appeared to be the causes of recurrence. It is important to use the PGA
sheets to not only cover the apical region, but also the whole of the upper lobe and segment 6 to reduce postoperative recurrence.
Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (eTSS) is widely employed for the surgical treatment of pituitary adenoma.
Surgery-assisted endoscopy offers a wider visual field than previous methods and allows surgeons to readily
approach the cavernous sinus, which is the most difficult area to resect. Extensive opening of the sellae floor is
necessary when the tumor invades the cavernous sinus; however, the evidence supporting this remains inadequate.
We retrospectively investigated 31 consecutive cases of pituitary adenoma that were treated via endoscopic
transphenoidal surgery. These cases were divided into 2 groups based upon the wideness of the sellae opening
(wide-opening group and narrow-opening group), and the patients’ age, sex, operating time, Knosp grade, tumor
resection rate and side effects were evaluated. As a result, tumor resection rates were significantly higher in
wide-opening group compared with the narrow-opening group. This finding suggests that wide opening of the
sellae floor contributes to extensive resection of pituitary adenoma. In this study, as a limitation, grouping was
performed chronologically (recently cases were grouped in the wide-opening group), so that the operators’ learning curve could be a confounder. Further investigations, including a prospective study, should be conducted to
confirm these findings.
A 68-year-old woman suffered from laryngeal cancer and exhibited abnormal shadows on chest computed
tomography (CT) scan prior to chemoradiation treatment. The chest CT scan showed a mass in the anterior mediastinum and two lung nodules in the left lower lobe. The patient underwent surgical resection of both of these
lesions concurrently. The histological diagnosis of mass lesions in the mediastinum and lung was Type A thymoma
with intrapulmonary metastases. The Classification of Malignant Tumours (TNM) stage of the tumor was
T1aN0M1b stage IVb. There has been no evidence of recurrence after a year of follow-up. It is rare for Type A
thymoma to cause distant metastasis.
This was a case of a 35-year-old female, who exhibited a nodule in swelling lymph nodes and pulmonary metastasis. In the left breast D area, a mobile poor mass of about 6cm size was located, which led to the diagnosis of
carcinoma of the breast. For neoadjuvant chemotherapy, TC 4cycle and EC 4cycle were administered, which led
to disappearance of the left axillary lymph node and the lung metastasis; this case was determined as cCR. For
cases of young breast cancer, the chemotherapies must be cautious in consideration of fecundity. However, the
priority of treatment must be seriously considered when a metastatic site contributes to a vital prognosis.
We report a case of a 50-year-old man with wall-eyed bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (WEBINO) syndrome caused by pontine infarction. The patient exhibited bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia with alternating
exotropia and left hemiparesis. In an inattentive state, bilateral mild exotropia was noted. On magnetic resonance
imaging, infarcts were detected in the right pontine base and the tegmentum on both sides. On electronystagmogram of saccade, the velocity in adduction and abduction was decreased bilaterally. Furthermore, the velocity in
adduction was more decreased than that in abduction bilaterally. This result indicated that the medial longitudinal
fasciculus (MLF) and the bilateral paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF) were impaired bilaterally in
predominance of the MLF. Inhibition of the lateral rectus muscle depends on inhibitory burst neurons connected
to the contralateral PPRF. This inhibitory function was considered to be related to adjustment of the forward gaze
in the lateral eye.
The patient was an 87-year-old woman who had a thoracic aortic aneurysm that had been followed conservatively by a general physician. She was transferred to our hospital in a shock state due to rupture of the thoracic
aortic aneurysm. Computed tomography revealed a large aneurysm with a maximum diameter of 80 mm in the
distal aortic arch. She developed hemorrhagic shock due to hemothorax. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair was
difficult because of marked kinking of the descending aorta. We performed emergency open stenting under mild
hypothermic circulatory arrest using our unique procedure. The patient was discharged from the hospital 14 days
after the surgery without any complications. Herein, we report a successful case of less-invasive, quick, open
stenting treatment for an octogenarian patient in a shock state due to ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm.