In this study, a questionnaire was administered to approximately 800 high school students to examine the relationship between respondents' self-awareness; their subjective evaluation of aspects of their daily lives, such as learning activities and relationships with school friends; and their dependency on smartphones. Their scores on a tendency toward smartphone dependency scale were set as the dependent variable in an analysis. The results showed an interaction between participants' subjective evaluations of their daily lives and their public self-awareness as well as an interaction between the same subjective evaluations and their private self-awareness. These results suggest that high school students who have high self-awareness but lack a positive subjective evaluation of their daily lives have a stronger tendency toward smartphone dependency.
When considering nursing students' subjective adaptation in nursing clinical practicum, it is useful to include factors and processes necessary for nursing students to adapt to the clinical environment. In this study, we semi-structured interviewed 14 novice nurses about clinical practicum they completed as nursing students. The study had a qualitative description design. Based on the interview results, 22 categories were extracted from 320 elements related to subjective adaptation, and the following three factors affecting nursing students' subjective adaptation in clinical practicum were found: [future goals and implications for students], [the reality of clinical practicum felt by students], and [human resources required by students]. The implications of these factors affect each other and are connected, and even if one factor is missing, the risk of impairing subjective adaptation in practicum is increased.
There is a chance of Japanese university students experiencing emotional problems such as anxiety and depression while seeking employment. These issues may have a negative effect on students' performance and accomplishment in job hunting and career development activities. This study focused on career beliefs in order to develop effective career support. Career beliefs are assumptions and generalizations individuals hold about the self and the world of work, which affect their career decision-making and career development. According to existing literature, intervening and modifying career beliefs can be done using cognitive approaches such as Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. The Career Beliefs Inventory (CBI) was developed as an assessment tool for career counseling. This study examined whether the Japanese version of the CBI would be an effective measure. There was insufficient internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and factorial and concurrent validity was open to question. Further research is necessary to develop an assessment tool to measure career beliefs accurately, based on reliability, validity, utility, and construct of irrationality.
We examined experiences of violence between couples and their attitudes regarding such violent experiences by using data of married men and women. We first examined the correlation between experiences of being abused and indulging in physical and psychological abuse from the perspective of violent interactions between couples. Results of chi-square analysis indicated a partial interaction; such that men and women indulge in similar types of acts that they have suffered. However, men indulge in acts of violence even without suffering similar acts. Then, attitudes regarding domestic violence (ADV) were considered a factor in determining violence and the correlation between violent attitudes and physical and psychological abusive behaviors were examined. Results of discriminant analysis indicated that abusive behaviors were positively related to several ADV items in men, whereas abusive behaviors were not related to ADV in women.
The purpose of this study was to develop Tidy-up Behavior Scale Revised (TBS-R) and to examine the reliability and validity. The participants were 204 undergraduate students. Factor analysis showed that the TBS-R consisted of three factors structure; "classification", "disposal" and "orderliness". This scale had a sufficiently high degree of internal consistency (Cronbach's α=.79-.92). The scale validities were confirmed on the basis on the relationship with both the Japanese version of the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R) subscales for measuring hoarding symptoms and the Japanese version of the Clutter Image Raging (CIR) for measuring clutter severity evaluated by a picture rating scale measuring the clutter of rooms. From this result, reliability and validity of the TBS-R was supported.
A group work was conducted for newly employed hospital professionals. The program was aimed at relieving their anxiety and helping them develop better relationships. Participants were 31 former students and mid-career staff working at a hospital (mean age = 27.7). Brief POMS was administered as the pre- and post-test to see the change of participants mood. A post-test questionnaire that included subjective assessment items (Nakamura et al., 2011), as well as impressions of group work. An analysis of POMS scores indicated a significant improvement in their mood after the program. The effect sizes also indicated that although the effects of group work are generally high, they are particularly effective for the high risk group. The analysis of subjective evaluation indicated that the participants experienced better relationship in terms of universality, cohesiveness, acceptance (sense of safety), advice and meaningful engagement with other occupations. The group work program with non-invasive warm-up activities for newly workers especially with emotional problems will facilitate adaptation to the workplace.