This article focuses on the calligraphic styles of Shaanxi-type Zhenmuping and Dongpailou Houhan Jiandu Shuxinjian, two handwritten materials of the late Houhan period featuring informal scripts of the time, and examines some aspects of informal scripts used in the late Houhan period through comparison of the two calligraphic styles and experiments in reproducing them. In particular, the article aims to illuminate the practical use of semi-cursive scripts as mentioned in Dongpailou Houhan Jiandu Shuxinjian.
The comparison of the two calligraphic styles indicated that both Shaanxi-type Zhenmuping and Dongpailou Houhan Jiandu Shuxinjian had calligraphic characteristics of sensible writing methods suitable for quick writing. The result of the experiment to reproduce the calligraphic style of Shaanxi-type Zhenmuping, which is thought to have been under certain restrictions because of the writing material, indicated the necessity of some changes in writing methods to represent the same calligraphic characteristics observed in Dongpailou Houhan Jiandu Shuxinjian. The calligrapher of Shaanxi-type Zhenmuping seems to have tried to preserve the script style faithfully with rather a scrupulous attitude of writing. The scarce use of cursive script in Shaanxi-type Zhenmuping also suggests the scrupulous nature of the writing.
The examination also elucidated a process whereby semi-cursive scripts different from existing informal scripts arose and developed into a new style in the late Houhan period. The article is significant in the point that it focuses on informal styles of calligraphy, which have been traditionally regarded as being rather obscure, and captures a real picture of semi-cursive scripts arising out of them to form a new standard.
1. A series of Lanting xu rubbings collected by You Si, a prime minister in the late Southern Song period, are called You Xiang-bens. This study overviews the dissemination routes and whereabouts of existing You Xiang-bens.
2. Yufu ling zi cong shan-ben, one of the You Xiang-bens (Vol. 1, No. 2) (The Chinese University of Hong Kong) is deeply connected with Lu Jishan-ben (National Palace Museum in Taipei) and Chen Jian-ben (The Palace Museum in Beijing). Taking into account the relations of Lu Jishan-ben and Chen Jian-ben with the major three lineages of Lanting xu, both versions are important in the research of lineage.
3. Since Zhang Cheng-keben (Shanghai Library) contains many questionable points, Yufu ling zi cong shan-ben is regarded as the oldest among Ling zi cong shan-bens with a reliable date of creation. Lanqianshanguan-ben is generally considered as written after a model.
4. The Lanting xu texts in printed version after the Southern Song period appear as “Ling zi cong shan-ben” and “Yang (怏)” in the 15th line is represented with “Kuai (快).” Considering that the Dunhuang manuscript uses “Ling (領)” and “Yang (怏)” whereas the character “快 Kuai” is inserted in small handwriting in the Yufu quezi-ben of You Xiang-bens (Vol. 1, No. 5), Ling zi cong shan-ben is presumed to originate in the insertion in the manuscript version of the text.
5. Yufu quezi-ben is the origin of Lanting xu in the Yingshang-ben version. Considering that Yufu ling zi cong shan-ben was edited in almost the same period as Yufu quezi-ben, Yingshang-ben cannot be the origin of Ling zi cong shan-ben.
6. The author recommends that versions of Lanting xu that are not Ling zi cong shan but share some characteristics with Ling zi cong shan-ben should be categorized as Ling zi cong shan-leiben. An Old Copy (Tokyo National Museum TB-1352), Yufu quezi-ben, and Yingshang-ben are included in this group.
7. Bazhu di’er-ben is presumed to be close to Ling zi cong shan-leiben and to have been created later than the original handwriting version of Yufu quezi-ben. Gu Wenbin-ben, which shows a close resemblance, is introduced here.
This article is part of a study on Chunhua geties. Through examination of existing editions, it aims to contribute to an elucidation of how Chinese calligraphy was accepted in Japan in the Edo era and how publishing projects of copybooks printed from the works of old masters were developed in China. In this article, based on examinations of counterfeit Wang Zhu-bens appearing in historical records, the propagation of two facsimile editions, Songta Chunhua getie (Dazhongguo tushu company, 1972) and Songqingli neifuke getie (Li pingshu private edition, 1920 or later), is discussed along with their relation with relevant records, characteristics of the woodblock printings of counterfeit Wang Zhu-bens, and their publication periods. As a result, not less than nine editions were confirmed, indicating the situation of China in the Ming and Qing periods whereby counterfeit Wang Zhu-bens were reprinted repeatedly and were in wide circulation to meet strong domestic demand. In particular, the edition originally owned by Wang Xijue (1534-1610) in the Ming period attracted attention and was widely utilized as a source book for reprints. On the other hand, dissemination of the two facsimile editions is observed only in and after the modern era, suggesting that they are relatively new reprints in and after the Qing period, a fact that is also supported by an examination of relevant records. Based on detailed examination of the calligraphic works included in counterfeit Wang Zhu-bens, the version consisting of rubbings was also determined to be counterfeit, and was edited and published incorporating knowledge from historical masters. Since this version does not appear before Zhang Chou in the Ming period as far as the author knows, it is presumed to have been first printed at the end of the Ming period. The author's next step is to perform detailed examination on Japanese versions of counterfeit Wang Zhu-bens, Kanen-bon (Kanen 3 or 1750) and Sojo-bon (Tenpou 14 or 1843) namely, based on the characteristics of printed editions of the counterfeit Wang Zhu-ben lineage.
Hidai Tenrai (Kou, 1872-1939) is one of great calligraphers who marked a significant achievement in the world of calligraphy in modern times and highly appreciated for his contribution in nurturing many disciples who play major roles in the calligraphic society today. Hidai issued “Shogakuin kensetsu shuisyo” in 1919 with the aim to found an institution for comprehensive research of calligraphy. He toured through Japan in order to raise funds for the project and, as a part of the effort, visited Korea in September, 1926, which led to his encounter with excellent works of Korean calligraphy. In 1931, he published Chosen shodo seika (five volumes) with help from some experts and introduced works of Korean calligraphy to a wide Japanese audience, who had known very little about them until then.
This article examines the reality and positioning of the research by Hidai Tenrai of Korean calligraphy by focusing on Chosen shodo seika, whose value and position have been rarely mentioned beforehand, and by illuminating the background, circumstance, and process of its publication.
The findings indicate that Hidai actively tried to appreciate works of unknown calligraphers based on his own critical eyes and unique view of calligraphic history. It is highly possible that his effort may have introduced multifaceted viewpoints to the study of Korean calligraphy and on this point, Chosen shodo seika has its significance.
It should be also appreciated that the fact that Hidai met Kim Donhee and had teaching from him in editing Chosen shodo seika to complete the collection as a kind of joint work had an effect of relativizing the study of Korean calligraphic history, which had been traditionally led by people of the suzerain state.