The purpose of this study is to clarify the possibility of using Warabe-uta, traditional children's game songs, as teaching materials for the music course in junior high school from the perspective of the principle of "constructive music expression." This paper consists of three sections: (1) the concept of "constructive music expression" and the teaching-learning process of "experience"-- "analysis"-- "re-experience"-- "evaluation" ; (2) analysis of the teaching-learning process in a 2nd grade music class at a junior high school; and (3) the development of motivation, communication skills and creativity by using Warabeuta as teaching material. The conclusions are as follows: 1. The playing motive can develop into learning motive and self-expression through playing together with Warabe-uta during "experience". 2. Junior high school students can develop their communication skills with Warabe-uta, although it should be placed in social context consistently throughout the teaching-learning process. 3. Junior high school students can develop their musical creativity through playing, singing and thinking analytically during the teaching-learning process of "experience"-- "analysis"-- "reexperience"-- "evaluation".
The purpose of this research is to formulate a structure for musical criticism that can be used to foster music appreciation and to describe how this structure can be applied to education. This structure takes the philosophical and esthetic principles of music appreciation and criticism as its basis and clearly delineates the thought processes of the students acquiring the critical ability that is one of several scholastic skills required in music education. The teachers' understanding of this structure allows them to apply it in a practical manner based on the educational significance of cultivating the learners' critical ability in music appreciation and to conduct clear assessments. The structure of musical criticism in the learning of music appreciation consists of the thought process for a critical judgment and the process of composing a critical essay for stating the judgment. The former process consists of four steps: "cognition of music"; "internal generation," such as the creation of images and emotional changes based on the cognition of music; "search for the value and meaning of music," which is based on such internal generation; and "judgment," which determines the value and meaning of music. The author has planned and taught a course in music appreciation based on this structure in a high school. The structure has been tested by analyzing the students' written descriptions of their process of thinking about music. The result shows that having the students understand the significance of music appreciation and criticism and inculcating the students with the four thought processes required for criticism have enabled them to create critical essays that met the definition of musical criticism. Therefore it is confirmed that it is possible to develop the scholastic abilities needed for music appreciation.