The purpose of this study is to clarify the significance of performance assessment as "authentic assessment" of music education in schools. This study clarifies the features of the "authentic assessment" theory. "Authentic assessment" theory is aimed at assessing "understanding," which means the ability to appropriately apply the knowledge and skills. The authentic performance task is used to assess this ability. The task involves: (1) application of knowledge and skills to the authentic (real) context, (2) amalgamation of the teacher's formative assessment and the child's self-assessment by practicing the task, and (3) use of the rubrics for reliability of assessment. This study also, analyzes the authentic performance task for elementary school music in Washington State on the basis of the above three points of the "authentic assessment" theory to clarify the significance of performance assessment as "authentic assessment" in school music. The "authenticity" of the assessment task helps children to independently participate as a musician in the assessment task, to understand the actual meaning of musical knowledge and skills, and to apply the knowledge and skills in the context replicating the musician's challenges. Through a combination of the teacher's formative assessment and the child's self-assessment, children are informed about the teacher's criteria of assessment and required feedback is given to feedback. Thus, children's practice will be similar to real musician's practice, and children will be able to improve their musical performance themselves. With the use of rubrics as a tool for scoring work, teachers are able to ensure the reliability of assessment of the musical work, musical performance, and musical expression. However, performance assessment as "authentic assessment" in music as such does not always lead to a higher-quality of musical performance. Thus, it is the important to keep in mind the quality of musical performance while practicing this assessment.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the learning activity that links play to musical expression. The research takes the following three steps. First, the guideline for planning the lesson has been obtained from the learning theory of Takeji Kinoshita. Next, the author has planned and carried out the research lesson. Last, the research lesson has been analyzed and conclusion has been drawn. From the learning theory of Mr. Kinoshita, the order of activity has been determined as play → create lyrics → create melody. For the lesson, grade 2 students did the mud ball play and students' awareness towards problems has been analyzed. From the result of analysis, the conclusions on the learning process from play to musical expression are as follows. It was revealed that the students' awareness towards problems does not go straight from play to musical expression, but goes back and forth between the two. Thus, the most important thing for developing learning activities that leads from play to musical expression is to set up the next activity according to the students' awareness and not to put too much emphasis on the order of activities itself. The students' awareness towards problems changes during the activities. The following two main causes for the change have been found in this research. One is when a new awareness towards problems came up while being engaged in the activity, and the other is when the teacher introduced a new problem.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to clarify the differences between Teaching Material Units and Learning Experience Units in music departments from the viewpoint of continuity of learning experience. In order to consider whether continuity of learning experience is being maintained, whether the learning process has a process of problem solving process or not should be considered. This is based on J. Dewey's educational theories. Music department Teaching Material Units refer to Units championed by Kazushige Chikamori who inspired new education in the early post-war years, the Toshio Sennari et al. group that criticised music education that uses Daizai (Theme in English) and advocated music education that uses Units as well as by Yoshinobu Nishizono. Learning Experience Units in this study refer to new Units based on construction principles derived by Ritsuko Kojima. By clarifying the differences between Teaching Material Units and Learning Experience Units, the issues of music class composition up until now will become clear. Method First of all, we clarified how continuity of learning experience is maintained in the case of Teaching Material Units. Next, we considered how continuity of learning experience is maintained in the case of Learning Experience Units and compared the results. Conclusion: In the cases that were analysed, we discovered that the Teaching Material Unit learning process did not have a process of problem solving and the continuity of learning experience was not maintained. Meanwhile, it was discovered that the Learning Experience Unit learning process did have a process of problem solving and the continuity of learning experience was maintained. We would like to continue with practical research into learning processes in music departments that maintain continuity of learning experience.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the way in which teachers need to encourage their students to facilitate inquiry-based music learning in a class called "Composing Music That Utilizes Tones Created by Rubbing Objects." The class is based on the theoretical framework of inquiry-based learning. First, prior research on the topic has been reviewed and "the inquiry-based approach" to learning, which is the target of this study, has been difined. Next, a class that took an inquiry-based approach to music learning has been analyzed from the perspectives of what teachers did and how students reacted. The results clarified that teachers' leadership in teaching inquiry-based music class is aimed at guiding the students to continuously develop their experience. Therefore, the following environmental precursors and direct instructions were set up: 1) create a new environment in the students' immediate experience in order to generate an indeterminate situation; 2) have the students objectively view the interaction between the objects and themselves in order to encourage the analysis of the indeterminate situation; 3) elicit the relationship between images and components from the students and organize them in order to encourage the children to think of a solution for the indeterminate situation; and 4) ensure an opportunity for the children to hear their own sounds and individually ask them questions in order to both generate the indeterminate situation and to encourage the children analyze it.
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the relation between "experience" and "subject-matter" in unit construction of school music education based on the concept of the generating of music from the perspective of music educational practice. Firstly, Dewey's concept of subject-matter, which takes a stance of monism between "experience" and "subject-matter", has been investigated. Secondly, the relation between "experience" and "subject-matter" in the case example of unit learning in school music education has been interpreted from the framework of Dewey's concept. Finally, the relation has been discussed in terms of unit construction of school music education based on the concept of the generating of music. The following conclusions have been drawn: 1. First, the subject must have a direct musical experience with cultural environment involved in the musical production of human experience. However, he/she does not yet realize the meaning and the value of the production of human experience. 2. He/She feels confusion when the musical conditions of the environment are changed. The problematic situation emerges at this moment. 3. He/She begins the inquiry to transform the indeterminate situation into determinate situation. He/She then investigates the conditions of the problematic situation. In the case of music learning, it is the reflective experience through the perception and feeling of music. Subject-matter emerges from the problematic situation in experience in the form of a problem of inquiry. 4. The subject-matter is reconstructed through experiment as the musical experience and communication in the inquiry, adding the meaning and value to the musical experience. So a new problematic situation emerges in there. 5. At the end of unit construction, the first direct experience develops into a more mature experience of musical expressionist.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the aspects of expression of an individual from the perspective of 'Collaboration', through an analysis of music making lesson that incorporated constructive musical expression activities using Koto in a special class in Junior high school. First, the concept of 'Collaboration' has been defined in the context of constructive musical expression activities. Next, the transcript of classroom communication and expression of a lesson has been analyzed. Finally, the aspects of expression of an individual has been examined from the perspective of 'Collaboration'. The conclusions are as follows: 1) The concept of 'Collaboration' in the context of musical expression activities refers to the process of mutually finding the meaning of development, as well as each individual reconstructing their expression and internal world through musical experience. Through the process, each individual overcomes disagreement and conflict and reconstructs the human relations in order to coexist. The process is led by communal musical performance. 2) Self-disclosure is important for self-expression. By self-disclosure, an individual becomes able to express oneself comfortably. 3) Spoken and written language function as scaffolding for perception and feeling, communication and image formation. Through the process of musical experience, an individual begins to seek fading. 4) The teacher communicates with individuals with an attitude of Caring. This attitude is not authoritative or one-way communication and includes the sympathy with the various expressions and the value of living together.