The aim of this study was to investigate exterior greenery at public facilities. To clarify the relationship between the guidelines and the public’s evaluation of exterior spaces, we the following steps were taken: 1) a literature review was carr ied out on this subject and local government personnel were interviewed to compare the coverage of the greenery guidelines; 2) a questionnaire was distributed to determine the elements considered in the public’s evaluation of exterior spaces. The purpose of the greenery guidelines is not only to ensure environmental protection, but also to encourage user and regional contribution. Overall, the exterior spaces that had greenery as per the guidelines received a good evaluation from the public. However, qui te a few users were not satisfied with the greenery in external spaces. We found that the public had a strong emotional connection with greenery and thus sought more greenery in their external spaces. The future challenge of exterior greenery projects is maintenance and continuation. To enable this, exterior greenery must be perceived as an important asset.
We hypothesized that quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) would be associated with 30-day mortality in bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria and might be a selection criterion for the use of carbapenem as initial empirical therapy. A multicenter retrospective study was conducted in six hospitals. All patients who had bacteremia due to ESBL-producing bacteria were included in the study. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze 30-day mortality as the main outcome. A total of 203 adult patients were identified with bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Proteus mirabilis. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae or P. mirabilis (odds ratio [OR] 5.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.64-15.56), underlying liver disease (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.09-10.00), and underlying solid cancer (OR 3.45, 95% CI 1.27-9.69) were associated with 30-day mortality. In a subgroup analysis, empirical non-carbapenem therapy was associated with 30-day mortality in bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae or P. Mirabilis. Our results suggest that qSOFA score is not a selection criterion for the use of carbapenem as initial empirical therapy.
（2）茎葉中の無機成分ではK, Si, Mn, Fe含有率が低いと病斑数は増加した．