詳細検索結果
以下の条件での結果を表示する:
全文: "Edward Snowden"
11件中 1-11の結果を表示しています
  • 青木 崇
    情報管理
    2017年 60 巻 5 号 359-364
    発行日: 2017/08/01
    公開日: 2017/08/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML
  • 情報管理
    2013年 56 巻 5 号 329-332
    発行日: 2013/08/01
    公開日: 2013/08/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML
  • Joonsang BAEK, Ilsun YOU
    IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems
    2016年 E99.D 巻 4 号 1251-1254
    発行日: 2016/04/01
    公開日: 2016/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper presents an efficient subverted symmetric encryption scheme, which outputs a random initialization vector (IV). Compared with the available scheme of the same kind in the literature, our attack provides a saboteur (big brother) with much faster recovery of a key used in a victim's symmetric encryption scheme. Our result implies that care must be taken when a symmetric encryption scheme with a random IV such as randomized CBC is deployed.
  • 情報管理
    2015年 58 巻 1 号 78-81
    発行日: 2015/04/01
    公開日: 2015/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML
  • Kazumaro AOKI
    IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
    2019年 E102.A 巻 1 号 11-16
    発行日: 2019/01/01
    公開日: 2019/01/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    ICT development progresses, and many cryptographic algorithms are used. The most of cryptographic algorithms require assumptions to guarantee their security, but it is sometimes not clearly written. This causes many problems. This paper shows previous cases, and suggests to concede cryptographers and system developer each other from an industrial cryptographers viewpoint.

  • 村田 潔, 折戸 洋子, 福田 康典
    経営情報学会 全国研究発表大会要旨集
    2017年 2017f 巻 F3-1
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/11/30
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
    2013年6月からエドワード・スノーデンとその協力者によって行われた,米国の情報機関NSAによる無差別大量監視に関する内部告発が社会に与えた影響について,筆者らは2014年10月~11月に, 日本を含む8か国における,大学生を対象としたアンケート調査ならびに聞取り調査を行った。この国際比較研究の結果,「国家による監視」に対する社会的態度において,日本は調査を行った国の中で特異な存在であることが明らかになった。本研究報告ではこの調査結果に基づき,高度情報化が進む日本社会における「国家による監視」に対する人々の態度の特徴を示し,それがプライバシー保護や個人の自由と自律,民主主義のあり方などに対して持つ意味を明らかにする。
  • 福田 充
    マス・コミュニケーション研究
    2016年 89 巻 45-60
    発行日: 2016/07/31
    公開日: 2017/10/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    Along with the evolution of the media, risk society and globalization have made progress. Media technology manages the risks that result as these functions become means of control. With the progress of risk society and globalization,“ crisis management” has become an important theme in the world.   The problem with the National Security Agency (NSA) monitoring global communication has become apparent in the Snowden incident. Changes in media have also caused evolutions in intelligence activities: state power to monitor the world, social structure to preserve state secrets in the name of security, and risk management. Computers and the internet are supporting the social infrastructure.   Under the pretext of security (e.g., counterterrorism), monitoring technology has evolved and been introduced to society. As with intelligence activity, this technology is a technique for preventing potential risks that could create crises. Big data is used for economic marketing in corporate activities. It has been used as a tool for intelligence activities by political power.  The Arab Spring was described as “Revolution 2.0.” Public Diplomacy 2.0 is using social media (e.g., Twitter and Facebook). While bonding with intelligence activities, this development has affected international relations. In this way, media evolution and risk management society have progressed in the world.
  • 土屋 大洋
    国際政治
    2015年 2015 巻 179 号 179_44-179_56
    発行日: 2015/02/15
    公開日: 2016/01/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    In response to an increasing number of cyber attacks, many governments have tasked their intelligence agencies with ensuring the safety and security of cyber space. This is a marked shift from the Cold War era when intelligence agencies’ main role was espionage in hostile countries. Their targets in this sense were clear and their tasks specific. However, perpetrators of cyber attacks today can hide themselves in the vast traffic of digital information. They might send computer viruses to a large indefinite number of computers and order them to attack a target by remote control. Or, they might take over someone else’s computer to eavesdrop others’ communications or to steal confidential information. This makes it difficult to identify the perpetrators of cyber attack incidents. With attribution becoming one of the core problems in cyber security, intelligence agencies are shifting their missions from espionage of fixed targets to wider surveillance of possible targets. This sometimes includes the general public.
    The shift has been generated by three changes in the information society. First, governments need to care for unknown risks rather than known threats. Intelligence agencies need to cast wider nets to detect possible signs of risk. Second, digital communications lowers the costs of collecting, processing, analyzing, and storing information. These lowered costs make surveillance easier. Finally, the prevalence of social media platforms like Twitter and Facebook has meant that people are putting an increasing amount of private and sensitive information online, available for collection by intelligence agencies. These changes have compelled intelligence agencies to shift their practices, with signal intelligence (SIGINT) increasingly becoming more effective than human intelligence (HUMINT). This paper looks at case studies of the United States and the United Kingdom to analyze the shift in intelligence practices in response to cyber security.
    In June 2013 former National Security Agency (NSA) contractor Edward Snowden revealed vast surveillance programs such as PRISM by the NSA. The British Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) was also revealed to be working in close cooperation with the NSA. Snowden’s revelations also shed light on hidden cooperation between intelligence agencies and information technology companies including Google, Microsoft, Apple, Facebook, Twitter and others. Without such cooperation, intelligence agencies face difficulties accessing the communications of possible targets. These activities have been amplified by cultures of anxieties after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The U.S. and the U.K. might be exceptional cases, but other countries, including other democracies, are conducting surveillance in some ways. As more and more people get online, the needs for such forms of surveillance may grow. Governments worldwide must consider reasonable and proper ways to protect their nations in cyber space, while striking a balance between privacy and security. This is an unavoidable policy task to be considered in the information age.
  • Kazuki YONEYAMA, Reo YOSHIDA, Yuto KAWAHARA, Tetsutaro KOBAYASHI, Hitoshi FUJI, Tomohide YAMAMOTO
    IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
    2018年 E101.A 巻 6 号 929-944
    発行日: 2018/06/01
    公開日: 2018/06/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    In this paper, we propose the first identity-based dynamic multi-cast key distribution (ID-DMKD) protocol which is secure against maximum exposure of secret information (e.g., secret keys and session-specific randomness). In DMKD protocols, users share a common session key without revealing any information of the session key to the semi-honest server, and can join/leave to/from the group at any time even after establishing the session key. Most of the known DMKD protocols are insecure if some secret information is exposed. Recently, an exposure resilient DMKD protocol was introduced, however, each user must manage his/her certificate by using the public-key infrastructure. We solve this problem by constructing the DMKD protocol authenticated by user's ID (i.e., without certificate). We introduce a formal security definition for ID-DMKD by extending the previous definition for DMKD. We must carefully consider exposure of the server's static secret key in the ID-DMKD setting because exposure of the server's static secret key causes exposure of all users' static secret keys. We prove that our protocol is secure in our security model in the standard model. Another advantage of our protocol is scalability: communication and computation costs of each user are independent from the number of users. Furthermore, we show how to extend our protocol to achieve non-interactive join by using certificateless encryption. Such an extension is useful in applications that the group members frequently change like group chat services.

  • 大塚 一美
    マス・コミュニケーション研究
    2015年 86 巻 83-102
    発行日: 2015/01/31
    公開日: 2017/10/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study aims to examine the influence of the Espionage Act of 1917 on freedom of the press in the United States. This article consists of the following sections. The first section introduces the outline of the system for classifying state secrets and the Espionage Act. The second section presents problems in the Espionage Act regarding freedom of the press. The third section provides cases that show the tendency to broadly apply the Espionage Act. The last section considers the strict control of access to information under the Espionage Act by the Obama administration. This study concludes that the Espionage Act has had a damaging effect on freedom of the press for the following reasons. Prosecuting people who divulge information brings about the chilling effect of furnishing the information. Government officials are increasingly afraid to talk to journalists. This situation is especially serious in the Obama administration compared with all previous U.S. administrations because of the aggressive prosecution of people who have divulged classified information. Although the Justice Department has never prosecuted journalists for violating the Espionage Act, there are dangerous attempts to prosecute individuals who act like journalists. In addition, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled against a journalist forced to reveal his source who disclosed information illegally. Laws and systems for protecting state secrets in which provisions are ambiguous and interpretations thereof are arbitrary infringe on civil liberties. Moreover, broad electronic information surveillance also deters sources from providing information to journalists. These problems occur not only in the United States but in Japan also. Because the Special Secrecy Law in Japan has no regard for the people's right to know, conditions in Japan will worsen with the enforcement of this law.
  • 韓 永學
    マス・コミュニケーション研究
    2014年 85 巻 123-141
    発行日: 2014/07/31
    公開日: 2017/10/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    The objective of this article is to explore the status of the right to know in the special secrecy law. I found that the law gives much attention to safeguarding "special secrets" but has no regard for the people's right to know. Firstly, the law virtually admits its classification of what is a special secret is too wide-ranging, but restricts the declassification and disclosure of such secrets. Also the law has a chilling effect on whistle-blowing. Secondly, there is little guarantee of the Japanese Diet, the court and third party organizations checking on the enforcement of the special secrecy law. Thirdly, the provision in consideration of press freedom in the law does not have a substantial effect. In view of these serious defects, the law should be abolished or radically amended.
feedback
Top