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全文: "Prefrontal cortex"
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  • 小林 俊輔
    認知神経科学
    2018年 20 巻 2 号 81
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/06/29
    ジャーナル フリー
  • SATORU OTANI
    順天堂醫事雑誌
    2015年 61 巻 2 号 171-174
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/08/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    The memory system in the brain is conventionally divided into three categories: declarative memory, emotional memory, and procedural memory. We propose yet another type of memory that is one level higher than these normal memories, namely, memory of the “temporal organization of behavior”. This type of memory is thought to be formed and stored in the prefrontal cortex, taking at the cellular level the form of synaptic plasticity. Synaptic plasticity in rat prefrontal cortex is indeed powerfully modulated by dopamine, the critical neuromodulator for the function of this cortex, where abnormalities in the dopamine level lead to abnormalities in prefrontal synaptic plasticity. Abnormal synaptic plasticity is also seen in the prefrontal cortex after injection of the psychoactive drug MK801, which is known to cause schizophrenia-like cognitive dysfunction in humans. MK801 spontaneously induces in rats synaptic potentiation in hippocampus-prefrontal cortex projection, and this abnormal plasticity is indeed accompanied by deficits of hippocampus-prefrontal cortex projection-dependent cognition that involves memory of the temporal organization of behavior. These results show that synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex correlates with cognitive processes that involve this cortex.
  • Yukio Ago, Maiko Sato, Shigeo Nakamura, Akemichi Baba, Toshio Matsuda
    Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
    2006年 102 巻 4 号 419-422
    発行日: 2006年
    公開日: 2006/12/15
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2006/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    We have shown that coadministration of sulpiride and fluvoxamine preferentially increases the release of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. To study the possible role of the cortical cholinergic system in this effect, we combined several other antipsychotic drugs with fluvoxamine and examined the effects on acetylcholine release in rat prefrontal cortex. Risperidone and clozapine significantly increased the release of acetylcholine but sulpiride did not, and fluvoxamine did not enhance the effects of the antipsychotics. These results further support the previous suggestion that the cortical dopamine system plays an important role in the effects of antipsychotic drugs administered in combination with fluvoxamine.
  • Christos Constantinidis
    認知神経科学
    2018年 20 巻 2 号 83
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/06/29
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Farshad Mansouri
    認知神経科学
    2018年 20 巻 2 号 82
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/06/29
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Yue HOU, Chunfu WU, Jingyu YANG, Xiang HE, Tao GUO
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI
    2006年 126 巻 8 号 671-675
    発行日: 2006/08/01
    公開日: 2006/08/01
    ジャーナル フリー
      Previous studies have shown that acute systemic administration of ethanol induced striatal ascorbic acid (AA) release in mice and rats. Undercutting the prefrontal cortex completely eliminated ethanol-induced AA release in rat striatum. In the present study, in vivo brain dialysis coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrochemical detection was used to evaluate the effect of ethanol on the release of AA in the prefrontal cortex, compared to that in the striatum of freely moving mice. The results showed that ethanol (4.0 g/kg i.p.) similarly induced AA release in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of freely moving mice.
  • Ai Hamasaki, Nobuhiko Akazawa, Toru Yoshikawa, Kanae Myoenzono, Kaname Tagawa, Seiji Maeda
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
    2018年 245 巻 4 号 245-250
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/08/11
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Cerebral hemodynamics plays an important role in cognitive performance, and as such, age-related cognitive dysfunction and cerebral hypoperfusion increase the risk of dementia. However, age-related changes in cerebral oxygenation and cognitive function remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate age-related declines in cerebral oxygenation and executive function cross-sectionally. Ninety-eight healthy Japanese adults (age range: 23-79 years; 40 males, 58 females) participated in the present study using local advertisements. The participants were divided into 4 age groups: young (20-39 years; M15/F7), 50s (50-59 years; M10/F12), 60s (60-69 years; M9/F31), and 70s (70-79 years; M6/F8). We measured oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) signal change in the prefrontal cortex during the Stroop task, and calculated Stroop interference time in cross-sectional design. This test is widely used to measure the ability to properly control attention and behavior in executing tasks, and to evaluate executive functions mainly associated with the prefrontal cortex. Oxy-Hb signal changes in the left prefrontal cortex in the 60s and 70s groups were significantly lower than those in the young group (both P < 0.05). Additionally, Stroop interference time was significantly longer in the 60s and 70s groups than in the young group (both P < 0.05). Furthermore, differences in oxy-Hb signal change between the left and right prefrontal cortex were evident only in the young group. These results suggest that the age-related decrease in executive function is associated with decrease in the cerebral oxygenation hemodynamics in the left prefrontal cortex.

  • Yuta Hara, Yuko Maeda, Shunsuke Kataoka, Yukio Ago, Kazuhiro Takuma, Toshio Matsuda
    Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
    2012年 118 巻 4 号 543-546
    発行日: 2012年
    公開日: 2012/04/18
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2012/03/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    We have recently shown that prenatal valproic acid (VPA) exposure causes autism spectrum disorders–like behavioral abnormalities and Nissl-positive cell loss in both prefrontal and somatosensory cortices in male mice. We have also found that VPA-induced social interaction deficits are observed in male but not female offspring. This study demonstrated that the exposure to VPA at embryonic day 12.5 significantly decreased Nissl-positive cell numbers in the prefrontal cortex, but not in the somatosensory cortex, in female offspring. These findings suggest that VPA-induced morphological abnormalities in the somatosensory cortex may be involved in the sex-dependent social interaction deficits.
  • 越野 兼太郎, O. J. ANDY
    The Japanese Journal of Physiology
    1969年 19 巻 2 号 187-197
    発行日: 1969年
    公開日: 2011/06/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    Brain stem lesions and stimulation effects upon prefrontal electrical activity in relation to limbic evoked potentials and after-discharges were studied in 20 squirrel monkeys. The studies were performed under phencyclidine hydrochloride (Sernylan) anesthesia.
    After-discharges elicited from the amygdala and hippocampus propagated to the prefrontal cortex following the lesion in the field H of Forel, whereas the septal stimulation elicited a self-sustained prefrontal after-discharge and a limbic after-discharge. Evoked potentials in the prefrontal cortex with the stimulation of the septum, amygdala, and hippocampus were attenuated by the conditioning stimuli in the field H of Forel.
    It was concluded that the lesion in the field H of Forel increased the excitability of prefrontal cortex to limbic stimulation and after-discharges.
  • Rie Tsuchida, Masahiro Kubo, Norihito Shintani, Michikazu Abe, Katalin Köves, Kazuki Uetsuki, Mariko Kuroda, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Akemichi Baba
    Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
    2009年 32 巻 4 号 728-731
    発行日: 2009/04/01
    公開日: 2009/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Psychostimulants induce hyperlocomotion in normal subjects, although, they are effective in producing a calming effect in hyperactive subjects. This paradoxical effect has been related to changes in serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission in hyperactive dopamine transporter-knockout mice. In addition, we observed that hyperlocomotion in mice lacking pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide was attenuated by amphetamine dependent on 5-HT1A receptor signaling and that amphetamine, when co-administered with a 5-HT1A agonist, produced a calming effect in wild-type mice. Here, in an attempt to address how 5-HT1A receptor signaling exerts the calming action of psychostimulants, we examined c-Fos expression in several brain regions after administration of methamphetamine and osemozotan, a selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist. The number of c-Fos-positive cells was increased in the medial prefrontal cortex, striatum and nucleus accumbens in methamphetamine (3 mg/kg body weight)-injected mice. Osemozotan (1 mg/kg) significantly reduced the methamphetamine-induced c-Fos expression in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum, but not in the nucleus accumbens. This osemozotan action was completely blocked by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (1 mg/kg). As the prefrontal cortex is considered to be involved in the beneficial actions of psychostimulant medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the present result showing 5-HT1A-mediated inhibition of corticostriatal activity may partly be related to this psychostimulant action.
  • 前田 崇斗, 橋爪 絢子, 松井 岳巳
    生体医工学
    2016年 54Annual 巻 26AM-Abstract 号 S44
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/11/19
    ジャーナル フリー

    Reduction of Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) blood flow measured by near- infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is reported to be seen during the wakefulness to the early stage of sleep. DLPFC blood flow can be an index of arousal level, while, NIRS needs to wear an annoying and costly headgear and not suitable for daily use. Using cost-effective and compact Doppler radars attached behind chair back, we conducted multivariate study for 5 healthy subjects (23±1years) to estimate DLPFC blood flow using heart rate and heart rate variability index measured by radars. Estimated DLPFC blood flow correlates with that measured by NIRS (R>0.9) only when DLPFC blood flow decreased with time.

  • 小濱 剛, 並河 弘樹, 岡本 亮太, 吉田 久
    生体医工学
    2016年 54Annual 巻 28AM-Abstract 号 S273
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/11/19
    ジャーナル フリー

    In the measurement techniques of cortical activity by using the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), the differences between resting state and task-performing state is often evaluated. However, the experimental conditions of resting state are not controlled. In this study, we investigated the effects of the low-passed dynamic random-dot patterns (LPDRDs) on the resting-state activities. We measured fNIRS signals from prefrontal cortex (PFC) and right-lateral temporal cortex (rLTC) during a block design paradigms, which is constructed of resting-state block with a LPDRD or a fixation crosshair (FT) after performing a 3-back task. We compared which condition is to be recovered to resting-state earlier after brain activation by the task. The results suggest that the average activity of PFC in the LPDRD condition was significantly lower than in the FT condition, indicating that gazing at the LPDRD in resting-state could be attenuated cortical activity more efficiently.

  • Hirohiko Nakamura, Mario Iwamoto, Kenji Washida, Kazunori Sekine, Mitsunori Takase, Bum-Jin Park, Takeshi Morikawa, Yoshifumi Miyazaki
    Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
    2010年 29 巻 3 号 103-108
    発行日: 2010/05/31
    公開日: 2010/06/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study examined the influences of the oral ingestion of casein hydrolysate from bovine milk at rest physiologically and psychologically. Eleven male university students were given a casein hydrolysate drink (H) or a maltitol drink as a control (C) in a crossover study. Just before and one hour after ingestion of each drink, the total-hemoglobin (tHb) concentrations at ten points of the prefrontal cortex to evaluate cerebral activity, and heart rate variability (HRV) to evaluate autonomic nerve activity through spectral analysis were measured as physiological indicators. The Japanese version of the State—Trait Anxiety Inventory—state anxiety (STAI-s) score was also used, as a psychological indicator. In comparison between H and C ingestion, a significant difference is observed only in tHb concentrations at one of ten points. At this point, the change in tHb concentration was lower after H ingestion compared to C ingestion. And in comparison between before and after ingestion of each drink, a significant increase in tHb concentration at two points after C ingestion, a significant increase in parasympathetic activity and decrease in sympathetic activity after H ingestion, and a significant decrease in STAI-s score in H ingestion were observed. These results suggest that ingestion of the casein hydrolysate may keep prefrontal cortex activity stable while maltitol ingestion partially increases the activity. Moreover, there is a possibility that casein hydrolysate might decrease sympathetic activity, increase parasympathetic activity, and lower anxiety. We conclude that the bovine milk casein hydrolysate may have more relaxing effects than maltitol.
  • KISOU KUBOTA
    順天堂医学
    2010年 56 巻 3 号 247-248
    発行日: 2010/06/30
    公開日: 2014/11/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    I started jogging when I was 46 years old. Since then, I might become to be addicted to the running and I started investigation about running and brain. By using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscope (fNIRS), we first measured changes of the frontal lobe activity. Although walking at a speed of 1km/h activated the lower limb motor area bilaterally, running at 9km/h activated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We also demonstrated that two months running training may improve frontopolar activities. This result is impressive, because this part of the prefrontal cortex is only present in the human. In order to tell those brain functions related to running, I wrote book about “Running and the Brain”.
  • Kenichi Shibuya, Chihoko Ueda, Kohei Sato, Shizuyo Shimizu-Okuyama, Mitsuru Saito, Atsuko Kagaya, Mifuyu Kamo, Takuya Osada, Tomoko Sadamoto
    Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
    2009年 28 巻 2 号 63-69
    発行日: 2009/03/30
    公開日: 2009/04/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    Previous studies have investigated the relationship between prefrontal cortex activation and perceived exertion during prolonged exercise. However, the effect of perceived exertion on prefrontal cortex activity is confounded by exercise intensity. Therefore, the changes in prefrontal cortex activity in response to perceived exertion remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the activation (oxygenation) of the prefrontal cortex and perceived exertion during constant work-rate elbow-flexion exercise with or without muscle-spindle stimulation. Ten healthy, right-handed subjects participated in the study. Near-infrared spectroscopy with probes positioned over the prefrontal cortex measured its activation throughout elbow-flexion exercise. Subjects performed sustained elbow-flexion exercise at 25–35% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with or without muscle-spindle stimulation (vibration), which can decrease perceived exertion. The ratings of perceived exertion were significantly lower during exercise with vibration (Ex-Vib) than during exercise without vibration (Ex) (p<0.05). The oxygenation of the prefrontal cortex during Ex-Vib did not significantly differ from that during Ex (p>0.05). These results indicated that perceived exertion was not necessarily associated with prefrontal cortex activation during exercise.
  • Kaoru Sakatani
    生体医工学
    2014年 52 巻 Supplement 号 OS-108-OS-109
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/10/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The World Health Organization (WHO) has adopted the term " active ageing " in the late 1990s to refer to continuing participation in social, economic, cultural, spiritual and civic affairs (WHO, 2002). In order to support active ageing, we have developed health promotion methods of mind and brain of the aged employing 2 channel NIRS, and evaluated the effect of mental stress, relaxation, and the effect of exercise on working memory. We found the right dominant activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) showed larger stress responses of autonomic nervous system and neuroendocrine system compared with the left dominant activity. Relaxation by fragrance reduced the stress response in association with changes in the stress-induced prefrontal cortex activity. Exercise increased working memory performance associated with increases of PFC activity during working memory tasks. Two-channel NIRS may be able to evaluate a stress state and a cognitive function objectively.
  • 山本 さつき, 井上 宏
    大阪歯科学会例会抄録
    2003年 486 巻
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2004/04/01
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
  • Takashi NAKAO, Tomohiro TAKEZAWA, Makoto MIYATANI, Hideki OHIRA
    PSYCHOLOGIA
    2009年 52 巻 2 号 93-109
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2009/09/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) activation has been observed in studies of many types related to emotion regulation, self and familiar other-knowledge, mentalizing, morality, reward, and uncertainty. Furthermore, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), which have reciprocal connections with MPFC, are considered necessary for cognitive regulation. Based on these findings, Nakao, Takezawa, and Miyatani (2006) proposed an integrative explanation for MPFC function: MPFC has a function of representing a benchmark that reduces conflict among many possible answers by biasing either choice of behavior. In this article, we review studies related to MPFC function and the benchmark hypothesis with recent new findings. Additionally, we discuss emotion regulation, which was not described in Nakao et al. (2006), in relation to the benchmark hypothesis.
  • Shota Hori, Koichi Mori, Takehisa Mashimo, Akitoshi Seiyama
    生体医工学
    2013年 51 巻 Supplement 号 R-90
    発行日: 2013年
    公開日: 2013/09/06
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Fubiao Huang, Daisuke Hirano, Yun Shi, Takamichi Taniguchi
    Journal of Physical Therapy Science
    2015年 27 巻 12 号 3891-3894
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/12/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare prefrontal activations during an added-purpose task with those during a single-purpose task using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. [Subjects] Six healthy right-handed adults were included in this study. [Methods] The participants were instructed to complete both added-purpose and single-purpose activities separately with each hand. The near-infrared spectroscopy probes were placed on the scalp overlying the prefrontal cortex, according to the International 10–20 system (Fz). Changes in the oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentrations in the prefrontal cortex were measured during performance of the activities. We then compared the number of activation channels with significant increase in oxygenated hemoglobin, during added-purpose activity to single-purpose activity using both hands separately. [Results] A greater number of widespread activations were observed in the prefrontal cortex during the added-purpose task than during the single-purpose task. These results were noted with both right and left hands. [Conclusion] According to our findings, added-purpose activity can bring about more activation in the prefrontal cortex, which may provide occupational therapists with effective guides in therapeutic practice.
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