2005 年 28 巻 5 号 p. 934-936
In order to reveal one of possible mechanisms for neuronal protective action of extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGBL), the effect of EGBL on kainate- and KCl-induced increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) of rat cerebellar neurons was examined using a confocal laser microscope with appropriate fluorescent probes. EGBL at 3 μg/ml started to attenuate kainate-induced increase of [Ca2+]i and further increase in EGBL concentration (up to 30 μg/ml) concentration-dependently and significantly inhibited the kainate response. The complete inhibition by EGBL was observed in some neurons when the concentration was 10—30 μg/ml. The kainate-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was mainly due to Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel opened by membrane depolarization via activation of kainate receptor-channel. However, the increase in [Ca2+]i by KCl was not significantly affected by EGBL at concentrations where the kainate response was greatly inhibited. EGBL consisting of flavone glycosides and terpene lactones is known to be an antioxidant. Furthermore, in this study, it is shown that EGBL exerts an inhibitory action on kainate receptor (a subtype of glutamate receptor). Since some of neurodegenerative diseases are due to cell death induced by glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, EGBL may be very suitable for preventing and/or treating such diseases.