2020 Volume 43 Issue 8 Pages 1188-1195
The immunostimulatory activity of unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN) could be improved via delivery to immune cells expressing Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Previously, we showed that the polypod-like structured nucleic acid (polypodna), a nanostructured DNA comprised of three or more ODNs, was an efficient system for the delivery of CpG ODNs to immune cells. Because some TLR9-positive immune cells express mannose receptors (MR), the uptake of polypodna by immune cells can be further increased by its modification with mannose. In this study, we selected the phosphodiester CpG ODN, ODN1668, which has a sequence identical to CpG1668, and a hexapodna, a polypodna with six pods, to design a hexapodna that harbored ODN1668 or the mannosylated CpG ODN (Man-ODN1668) synthesized via modification of the 5′-terminal of ODN1668 with a synthesized mannose motif. By mixing ODN1668 or Man-ODN1668 with the hexapodna, ODN1668/hexapodna and Man-ODN1668/hexapodna were successfully formed with high yields. However, Man-ODN1668/hexapodna was found to induce a greater tumor necrosis factor-α release from TLR9- and MR-positive mouse peritoneal macrophages and macrophage-like J774.1 cells than Man-ODN1668 or ODN1668/hexapodna. These results indicate that the combination of mannose modification and incorporation into nanostructured DNA is a useful approach for enhancing the immunostimulatory activity of CpG ODN.