2022 Volume 70 Issue 12 Pages 840-847
In order to investigate the relationship between the chemical composition of essential oils and haplotypes of the psbA-trnH intergenic spacer region of chloroplast DNA (psbA-trnH) in Valerianae Fauriei Radix (Japanese Valerian; JV), we analyzed the DNA sequence and GC-MS metabolome of JV from Japanese markets and of herbal specimens from related species. DNA analysis revealed that JV products from Japan consisted of three haplotypes, namely AH-1, -2 and -5 reported in our previous study. The GC-MS metabolome revealed five chemotypes (J1, J2, C, K and O), of which J1, J2 and C were detected in the JV products from Japan. Chemotypes J1 and J2, with kessyl glycol diacetate (KGD) as the main volatile component, were found in the products of Japanese origin whereas chemotype C, with 1-O-acetyl-2,10-bisaboladiene-1,6-diol (ABD), was found in the products of Chinese and Korean origin. The haplotypes were correlated with the chemotypes: haplotype AH-1 for chemotype J1, AH-2 for chemotype J2 and AH-5 for chemotype C, suggesting that the chemical diversity of JV is not attributed to the environmental factors rather to the genetic factors. Since KGD and ABD were reported to have sedative effects and nerve growth factor (NGF)-potentiating effects, respectively, understanding the chemotypes and selecting an appropriate one would be important for the application of JV. The psbA-trnH haplotypes could be useful DNA markers for the quality control and standardization of JV.