Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Online ISSN : 1347-5223
Print ISSN : 0009-2363
ISSN-L : 0009-2363
Current issue
Displaying 1-8 of 8 articles from this issue
  • Atsushi Nakayama
    2024 Volume 72 Issue 5 Pages 422-431
    Published: May 01, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 01, 2024

    Natural products are important for the development of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals; thus, their synthesis and medicinal chemistry research is critical. Developing a total synthesis pathway for natural products confirms their structure and provides the opportunity to modify the structure in a targeted manner. A simple modification of a single oxidation step can increase the biological activity, or the complexity of the molecule can alter the property. Herein, we discuss the asymmetric total synthesis of dihydroisocoumarin-type natural products, the creation of novel antibacterial compounds through partial structural modification, and the development of antioxidants with high activity and low toxicity through dimerization strategies.

  • Okiko Miyata
    2024 Volume 72 Issue 5 Pages 432-453
    Published: May 01, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 01, 2024

    We have developed efficient synthetic reactions using enamines and enamides carrying oxygen atom substituent on nitrogen, such as N-alkoxyenamines, N,α-dialkoxyenamines, N-alkoxyanamides, and N-(benzoyloxy)enamides. The umpolung reaction by polarity inversion at the β-position of N-alkoxyenamines afforded α-alkyl-, α-aryl-, α-alkenyl-, and α-heteroarylketones by using aluminum reagent as nucleophiles. Furthermore, one-pot umpolung α-phenylation of ketones has been also developed. We applied this method to umpolung reaction of N,α-dialkoxyenamine, generated from N-alkoxyamide to afford α-arylamides. The vicinal functionalization of N-alkoxyenamines has been achieved with the formation of two new carbon–carbon bonds by using an organo-aluminum reagent and subsequent allyl magnesium bromide or tributyltin cyanide. A sequential retro-ene arylation has been developed for the conversion of N-alkoxyenamides to the corresponding tert-alkylamines. The [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of N-(benzoyloxy)enamides followed by arylation afforded cyclic β-aryl-β-amino alcohols bearing a tetrasubstituted carbon center. The resulting products were converted into the corresponding sterically congested cyclic β-amino alcohols, as well as the dissociative anesthetic agent Tiletamine.

Regular Article
  • Sudipta Mukherjee, Jasmina Khanam
    2024 Volume 72 Issue 5 Pages 454-470
    Published: May 09, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 09, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 19, 2024

    This study investigates the efficacy of modified Albizia procera gum as a release-retardant polymer in Diltiazem hydrochloride (DIL) matrix tablets. Carboxymethylated Albizia procera gum (CAP) and ionically crosslinked carboxymethylated Albizia procera gum (Ca-CAP) were utilized, with Ca-CAP synthesized via crosslinking CAP with calcium ions (Ca2+) using calcium chloride (CaCl2). Fourier Transform (FT) IR analysis affirmed polymer compatibility, while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) assessed thermal behavior and crystallinity, respectively. Zeta potential analysis explored surface charge and electrostatic interactions, while rheology examined flow and viscoelastic properties. Swelling and erosion kinetics provided insights into water penetration and stability. CAP’s carboxymethyl groups (–CH2–COO) heightened divalent cation reactivity, and crosslinking with CaCl2 produced Ca-CAP through –CH2–COO and Ca2+ interactions. Structural similarities between the polymers were revealed by FTIR, with slight differences. DSC indicated modified thermal behavior in Ca-CAP, while Zeta potential analysis showcased negative charges, with Ca-CAP exhibiting lower negativity. XRD highlighted increased crystallinity in Ca-CAP due to calcium crosslinking. Minimal impact on RBC properties was observed with both polymers compared to the positive control as water for injection (WFI). Ca-CAP exhibited improved viscosity, strength, controlled swelling, and erosion, allowing prolonged drug release compared to CAP. Stability studies confirmed consistent six-month drug release, emphasizing Ca-CAP’s potential as a stable, sustained drug delivery system over CAP. Robustness and accelerated stability tests supported these findings, underscoring the promise of Ca-CAP in controlled drug release applications.

  • Hidetomo Yokoo, Yoshitaka Aoyama, Takashi Matsumoto, Eiichi Yamamoto, ...
    2024 Volume 72 Issue 5 Pages 471-474
    Published: May 15, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 15, 2024
    Supplementary material

    The solid-state properties of drug candidates play a crucial role in their selection. Quality control of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) based on their structural information involves ensuring a consistent crystal form and controlling water and residual solvent contents. However, traditional crystallographic techniques have limitations and require high-quality single crystals for structural analysis. Microcrystal electron diffraction (microED) overcomes these challenges by analyzing difficult-to-crystallize or small-quantity samples, making it valuable for efficient drug development. In this study, microED analysis was able to rapidly determine the configuration of two crystal forms (Forms 1, 2) of the API ranitidine hydrochloride. The structures obtained with microED are consistent with previous structures determined by X-ray diffraction, indicating microED is a useful tool for rapidly analyzing molecular structures in drug development and materials science research.

  • Takehiro Nishimura, Kei Kudo, Miho Izumikawa, Ikuko Kozone, Junko Hash ...
    2024 Volume 72 Issue 5 Pages 475-479
    Published: May 16, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 16, 2024
    Supplementary material

    Heterologous expression of natural compound biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) is a robust approach for not only revealing the biosynthetic mechanisms leading to the compounds, but also for discovering new products from uncharacterized BGCs. We established a heterologous expression technique applicable to huge biosynthetic gene clusters for generating large molecular secondary metabolites such as type-I polyketides. As an example, we targeted concanamycin BGC from Streptomyces neyagawaensis IFO13477 (the cluster size of 99 kbp), and obtained a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone with an insert size of 211 kbp that contains the entire concanamycin BGC. Interestingly, heterologous expression for this BAC clone resulted in two additional aromatic polyketides, ent-gephyromycin, and a new compound designated as JBIR-157, together with the expected concanamycin. Bioinformatic and biochemical analyses revealed that a cryptic biosynthetic gene cluster in this BAC clone was responsible for the production of these type-II polyketide synthases (PKS) compounds. Here, we describe the production, isolation, and structure elucidation of JBIR-157, determined primarily by a series of NMR spectral analyses.

  • Naoya Ito, Masataka Ito, Hironori Suzuki, Shuji Noguchi
    2024 Volume 72 Issue 5 Pages 480-486
    Published: May 18, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 18, 2024
    Supplementary material

    X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy is a new method for the characterization of active pharmaceutical ingredients. XANES spectra show unique features depending on the electronic states of the X-ray absorbing elements and provide information about the chemical environment that affects the electronic states. In this study, six bisphosphonate hydrate crystals were used to investigate, for the first time, how the phosphorus K-edge XANES spectra are affected by the interatomic interactions and charged states of phosphonate moieties. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectra showed several differences among the bisphosphonates. In particular, the chlorine atoms covalently bonded near the phosphonate and the number of electric charges of the phosphonate moieties seemed to have large effects on peak shape in XANES spectra. Unique shapes of the XANES spectra demonstrated that differences in interactions at the oxygen atoms of the phosphonate moieties could change the shapes of the XANES spectrum peaks to the extent that each material was distinguished based on the spectra. Since slight differences in interatomic interactions and charged states lead to variations in the spectra, XANES spectroscopy could be widely applied as the fingerprint method to evaluate active pharmaceutical ingredients.

  • Motoki Ito, Ryuhei Oda, Akari Shoji, Kazuhiro Higuchi, Shigeo Sugiyama
    2024 Volume 72 Issue 5 Pages 487-497
    Published: May 21, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 21, 2024
    Supplementary material

    Herein, we report the functionalization of polyhedral oligosilsesquioxanes (POSS) and related siloxanes with arynes. Using o-triazenylarylboronic acids as aryne precursors and silica gel as the activator, the transformation of siloxane bearing various arynophilic moieties on the side chains was achieved with high yields without touching the siloxane core. This method was applied to the conjugation of POSS and pharmaceutical cores using an aryne derived from the synthetic intermediate of cabozantinib. Furthermore, orthogonal dual functionalization of POSS was realized by combining the aryne reaction with Huisgen cyclization.

  • Junseong Ahn, Hyun-Ha Hwang, Soo Yeon Jung, Ja Yeon Lee, Choi Kim, Hye ...
    2024 Volume 72 Issue 5 Pages 498-506
    Published: May 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 25, 2024
    Advance online publication: May 11, 2024
    Supplementary material

    Using (S)-decursinol isolated from root of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN), we semi-synthesized and evaluated a series of both enantiomerically pure decursin derivatives for their antiproliferative activities against A549 human lung cancer cells. All synthesized compounds showed a broad spectrum of inhibitory activities against the growth of A549 cells. Especially, compound (S)-2d with (E)-(furan-3-yl)acryloyl group showed the most potent activity (IC50: 14.03 µM) against A549 cancer cells as compared with the reference compound, decursin (IC50: 43.55 µM) and its enantiomer, (R)-2d (IC50: 151.59 µM). Western blotting assays indicated that (S)-2d more strongly inhibited Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription activation 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation than decursin in a dose-dependent manner, while having no effect on CXCR7 overexpression and total STAT3 level. In addition, (S)-2d induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and subsequent apoptotic cell death in A549 cancer cells. Our combined analysis of molecular docking studies and biological data suggests that the inhibition of JAK1 with (S)-2d resulted in loss of STAT3 phosphorylation and inhibition of cell growth in A549 cancer cells. These overall results strongly suggest that (S)-2d (MRC-D-004) as a novel JAK1 inhibitor may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of A549 human lung cancers by targeting the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway.