2019 Volume 25 Issue 5 Pages 625-636
A large amount of bread crust is generated in the production of sandwiches and other bread products which, is not sufficiently used as food. If this crust can be reused effectively in the bread making process, it can add value, reduce waste, and improve the flavor and texture of bread. However, an excess amount of gelatinized starch (GS) in crust inhibits gluten network formation in bread dough and greatly decreases bread making qualities (BMQs). In this study, we investigated the optimal amount of two bakery enzymes, α-amylase (AM) and hemicellulase (HC), that can be added to improve the BMQs of crust-added dough. The optimal amounts of the enzymes were determined using response surface methodology and Solver, an Excel add-in software. The results showed that BMQs, specific loaf volume (SLV), gas retention of dough (GRD) and staling of dough and bread with added crust gel (CG) and optimal amounts of AM and HC were drastically improved compared to those without additional enzymes. It was concluded that response surface methodology and Solver are effective methods to easily determine the optimal amounts of the two enzymes to add to CG-supplemented dough to obtain high SLV and desirable texture, flavor and taste. The only negative aspect is poor bread color.