This study examined the relationships among children's role-taking ability in rule and moral situations and classroom behavior (non-cooperative class behavior, rule compliance behavior, and prosocial behavior), as well as children's emotions toward school (liking/avoidance). Participants were Grade 5 and 6 primary-school students in Japan. We used path analysis to examine the effects of role-taking ability in moral situations influenced prosocial behavior and school liking. The results indicated that role-taking ability in moral situations influences on school liking via prosocial behavior. The results can be helpful in understanding and improving children's adjustment to school.