Two scales have been used to assess burnout in Japan: the Japanese Burnout Scale (JBS), which was developed in Japan, and the Japanese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), which was developed in the US. The MBI-HSS is widely used worldwide, while the JBS is generally used in Japan. We conducted a Web survey to clarify the difference between the two scales among three groups of human service professionals (N = 450). Using multiple analytic methods (e.g., correlation, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, commonality regression analyses), we consistently found evidence that the two scales overlapped. Both scales’ structure of emotional exhaustion had high similarity; however, personal accomplishment and depersonalization were not very similar. Furthermore, the JBS was a better fit to the model than the MBI-HSS. These results indicate that the JBS is effective for surveying burnout among Japanese individuals, adding to result from previous studies in Japan; however, the MBI-HSS should be considered for international surveys, highlighting the need for appropriate selection of scales.