1951 年 21 巻 1 号 p. 1-17
Extinction, Delay, and Trace of Conditioned Salivary Reflex in Human Subjects
Formerly we succeeded in establishing the conditioned salivary reflex in human subjects, of which Zebrowski, Brunacci, Richter, Lashley, Krasnogorski, and others have never been able to report any setisfactory result, and showed several phases of generalization, (c.f. “Ten Tears of Research on the Conditioned Response in Human Subjects” by Yasho Kotake, in Brain Study vol. 6). And here, after making efforts, we could catch the phenomena of extinction by the manometer which was connected to the suction disk. The sound of metronome was used as conditioned stimulus, and special care was taken for unconditioned stimulus, trying to establish complicated temporal scheme which is more advanced than simple basic scheme of conditioned reflex. And at last, we succeeded in establishing the delayed conditioned salivary reflex and the trace conditioned salivary reflex in human subjects, which have been thought to be impossible. The results of the experiments were showed in detail following the development of reinforcement process. The results have enough reliability as they were acquired by perfect arrangements of the sound proof room and our experimental technique mastered through ten years' experience. We made a psycho-physiological scheme of human being and found psycho-physiological laws of the functions of the human brain by executing just the same experiments as pavlov did on dogs. The laws which were drawn out from the relation between introspective data and establishing process of conditioned reflex, the facts about strengthening of differentiation, and especially time relation in trace conditioned reflex, are, we believe very interesting achievements.
A Method of Acute Establishment of Conditioned Reflex in Human Subjects.
On the basis of the confidence acquired at Part I, we found acute method of establishing conditioned reflex in human subjects by extremely shortened reinforcing xprocess. And we succeeded with offering it as a research method of clinicalmedicine. The method is to measure galvanic skinreflex by simple electric condenser circuit. Thus weconditioned this galvanicskin reflex by weak electricshock as uncond itioned sti mulus and pure tone asconditioned stimulus.
We have the conviction that conditioned reflex can be established by means of 14-25 times reinforcing trials within only 30 or 60 minutes. Comparing single reinforcing method and differential reinforcing method, We have found that the latter is more effective and reliable in human subjects. By this research an indicator of the function of the human brain was acquired. Certainly it may play an interesting rôle on the researches of psychopathology and brain surgery.
There are many authers in U.S.A. who have reported on the conditioned galvanic skin reflex. However, it is the first time that it was offered as a practical method by introducing differential reinforcing method, being based upon the researches of conditioned salivary reflex for many years. Thus we could contribute to apply conditioned reflex theory to the new fields. Our second theme is to complete all the schemes containing generalization, trace, and delay of human conditioned galvanic skin reflex by this acute method of conditioning, and in future “Brain Wave” will be introduced in our experimental study.
Voluntary Cootrol of Conditioned Salivary Reflex in Human Subjects.
In this part one of the most difficult problems for the experiments in the field of psycho-physiology is taken up. The problem is to prove experimentally the fact that conditioned salivary reflex in human subjects which hasthe most clear form is controlled voluntarily, and to make the basis firm for solviug the more interesting problems of reflex, volition and language. It was found that conditioned salivary reflex in human subjects is controlled voluntarily through five