2002 年 13 巻 1 号 p. 2-22
Japanese pickling vegetables “Tsukemono” are a main component of Japanese cuisine. Pickles were first produced in ancient times as a means of preserving food, and over the years became an important part oi the basic Japanese meal. The vegetables most commonly pickled in Japan are Chinese cabbage, radish (daikon), radish greens, cucumber, carrots, turnips and Japanese eggplant. Pickles offer color, texture and aroma to a meal. Pickles are crisp and fresh, with small amounts of several varieties usually served in individual petite dishes.
Lactic acid bacteria of fermented vegetables (e. g., “Suguki-dzukeh” or “Shiba-dzukeh”from Kyoto)are either Gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic organisms and are salt resistant. The growth of leuconoctocs occurred constantly regardless of fermentation temperature (early fermentation), but at higher temperatures, the growth of lactobacilli occurred along with the sporadic growth of lactic streptococci and pediococci (late fermentation). The growth of these communities in late fermentaion was not essential to traditional fermented vegetables production, and was attenuated by alteration of temperature. Among the lactic acid bacteria, the dominant species was Leuconostoc mesenteroides at low temperature, and Lactobacillus plantarum at higher temperatures. The more temperature was increased, the more organic acids were produced. Acid production could be divided into two phases: most organic acids formed during the first phase were products of L. mesenteroides at every temperature and organic acids formed during the second phase were products of L. plantarum. Salt was the most important limiting factor, because fermented vegetables cannot be made without salt. The optimum concentration of salt for the growth of lactic acid bacteria was found to be in the range 2∼3 %.