2022 Volume 39 Pages 3-28
The properties of particle ensembles are defined by a complex multidimensional parameter space, namely particle size, shape, surface, structure, composition and their distributions. Macroscopic product properties are a direct result of these disperse particle properties. Therefore, the comprehensive multidimensional characterization of particle ensembles is a key task in any product design. However, the determination of complex property distributions is major challenge. We provide a broad overview of the current tools for multidimensional particle characterization. First, the mathematical handling of multidimensional (nD) property distribution is outlined as a necessary framework for the correct handling of nD particle size distributions (PSDs). Then, well-established techniques as well as recent developments with the potential to extract nD property distributions are reviewed. Ex situ imaging techniques like electron tomography or Raman spectroscopy with AFM co-localization, for instance, provide a resolution on the level of single particles but are limited in terms of sample statistics. A particular focus lies therefore on methods in the gas and the liquid phase, which provide multidimensional particle properties either directly or by a combination of one-dimensional techniques.