Microorganisms are ubiquitous in the Earth’s biosphere. Majority of them poses a threat for humans, being either naturally occurring or artificially introduced into the air and forming bioaerosols. Bringing together the contemporary status of information in the area, this ‘eye-opening’ article characterizes in condensed form the environmental sources of microbial aerosols, their role in atmospheric processes, provides their physical and biological characteristics which result in adverse health effects, discusses analytical techniques used for their quantitative and qualitative evaluation, presents methods for establishing standards of exposure, and comments on their usefulness in the control and protection of environment and health.
Supercritical hydrothermal synthesis is a promising methodology of nanoparticle fabrication. This review introduces principles of the process as well as the characteristics of the products synthesized by the method. The process design of the supercritical method, surface control by organic modification, and the possible application of the nanohybrid materials are focused on.
Despite the facts that the applied particle concentration and the field of usages are completely different, air filter and bag filter are regarded as similar because of at the point of using fine fibers as dust collecting body. The article reviewed the collection performance of a single fiber collection efficiency at different mechanisms and time changes of collection performance of both filters is reviewed precisely based on numerous previous studies.
Inhaled dry powder therapeutics occupy a growing sector in the pharmaceutical market and meet demands unmet by alternative formulation counterparts. The dry powder inhaler offers the benefits of short delivery times, ease of administration, increased bioavailability, and excellent shelf-life. However, dry powder therapeutics have not transitioned to the market at the same rate as alternative pulmonary delivery platforms. This article addresses some of the barriers to the success of dry powder therapeutics from the preclinical stage to the market. The article concludes with a discussion on improvements needed to address current research model failures and identifies barriers to dry powder formulation and development.
Droplet microfluidics is a novel discipline of science dealing with generation, manipulation and creative use of emulsions - fluidic equivalent of granular matter. In this work Authors provide a comprehensive introduction to droplet microfluidics. The review covers fundamentals and presents some of the most important applications of the emulsions - representative to the broad interest in droplet microfluidics ranging from material science, through biomedical experiments and diagnostics, to applications in pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries.
A Review of the Fire and Explosion Hazards of Particulates
Released: February 27, 2014 | Volume 31 Pages 53-81
Saul M. Lemkowitz, Hans J. Pasman
Mixing and Segregation in Powders: Evaluation, Mechanisms and Processes
Released: March 29, 2014 | Volume 27 Pages 3-17