Belongingness is a fundamental human need. Adverse consequences occur with social exclusion. Terms related to pain such as “broken heart” and “hurt,” which are used to reflect individuals’ emotional state when they are socially excluded, are found across a wide variety of cultures. Research indicates that when individuals experience threats to their social bonds, their brain responds in the same way as it does to physical pain. In essence, the psychological reaction associated with being excluded is akin to physical pain. However, several recent studies have criticized the view that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, a region in the brain, has a key role in the physical–social pain overlap. In this review, I discuss recent trends in the pain overlap theory and relevant topics for future research.