Network analysis for psychopathology, introduced by Kashihara (2019), has the potential to greatly transform the research and treatment of psychiatric disorders. This paper discusses how we integrate the literature on cognitive and clinical psychology into the network analysis. Most network analysis in psychiatric disorders has used the data obtained from questionnaires, although incorporating the experimental tasks used in cognitive and clinical psychology into the assessment is worthy for clarifying the mechanisms that underlie psychiatric disorders. However, some issues arise when the data obtained from the experimental tasks are used in network analysis. These barriers indicate new issues that cognitive and clinical psychologists need to solve in the future.
Individuals usually imagine the future, set goals, make plans, and invest much effort in achieving these goals. However, individuals also often fail to achieve their goals by giving in to temptation. “Being good at self-control” is traditionally assumed to be key in achieving future goals. The present paper aims to clarify what “being good at self-control” means by reviewing psychological research about self-control. We suggest that the concept of “good at self-control” can be organized into two dissociated concepts: (1) “good at conflict resolution,” based on executive function (or cognitive control) and value representation (e.g., temporal discounting, value integration), and (2) “good at goal achievement,” based on value updating (e.g., habituation, goal internalization). We discuss related issues such as socialization or the agentic aspect of self-control, and we suggest avenues for future research on organizing the concept of self-control.
Understanding others’ facial expressions has an important role in daily emotional communication. To date, many studies, including developmental studies, have focused on emotions by using facial expressions as the stimuli. However, very few reviews have been conducted on understanding others’ facial expressions, including studies on adults, children, and infants. In this study, the ability to understand others’ facial expressions are reviewed. First, the author identified four abilities that are required for understanding others’ facial expressions. Second, studies on adults, children, and infants are reviewed with respect to each of the four abilities required for improving the understanding of others’ facial expressions. Finally, the author proposes the future direction for the study of the development of understanding others’ facial expressions.
Belongingness is a fundamental human need. Adverse consequences occur with social exclusion. Terms related to pain such as “broken heart” and “hurt,” which are used to reflect individuals’ emotional state when they are socially excluded, are found across a wide variety of cultures. Research indicates that when individuals experience threats to their social bonds, their brain responds in the same way as it does to physical pain. In essence, the psychological reaction associated with being excluded is akin to physical pain. However, several recent studies have criticized the view that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, a region in the brain, has a key role in the physical–social pain overlap. In this review, I discuss recent trends in the pain overlap theory and relevant topics for future research.
Various studies have shown that mindfulness promotes well-being. Observing, which is a factor of mindfulness, is surmised as having a core role in promoting well-being. The adaptive effect of observing has been robustly demonstrated in a meditator sample, although that relationship is not always demonstrated in a nonmeditator sample; it is assumed that the factor changed through meditation has an effect on the function of observing. In this study, we relied on the Buddhist psychological model (BPM) and focused on “nonattachment,” which is a flexible, balanced way of relating to one’s experiences without clinging to or suppressing them and is an important concept in the BPM. We discussed nonattachment by using the concepts of “attention” and “moment by moment,” which are concepts shared with psychology. For observing to promote well-being, the results indicate that (1) observation should be flexible with disengaged attention, while being less likely flexible with engaged attention, and should be capable of attentional switching, and (2) observation must be experienced moment by moment.
Previous studies have examined the neural mechanisms of interval timing (i.e., time perception in the seconds-to-minutes range). Some studies have demonstrated that silencing the dorsal striatum abolishes optimal performance during interval timing tasks. This finding suggests the dorsal striatum has an important role in interval timing. However, research has also demonstrated that the dorsal striatum is important for performing actions. Thus, the possibility that silencing the dorsal striatum affects the performance of actions during tasks rather than interval timing cannot be ruled out. To address this issue, we examined the role of the dorsal striatum in a temporal discrimination task and tone pitch discrimination task. Rats were presented various pitches of tones for various durations and were then required to press one of two levers. They would finally receive rewards if their responses were correct. These tasks were identical, except for the dimension of the required discrimination. Pharmacological inactivation of the dorsal striatum impaired performance in the temporal discrimination task, but not in the tone pitch discrimination task. This finding suggested the specific role of the dorsal striatum in interval timing.