2011 Volume E94.A Issue 12 Pages 2669-2675
We show measurement results of variation-tolerance of an error-hardened dual-modular-redundancy flip-flop fabricated in a 65-nm process. The proposed error-hardened FF called BCDMR is very strong against soft errors and also robust to process variations. We propose a shift-register-based test structure to measure variations. The proposed test structure has features of constant pin count and fast measurement time. A 65nm chip was fabricated including 40k FFs to measure variations. The variations of the proposed BCDMR FF are 74% and 55% smaller than those of the conventional BISER FF on the twin-well and triple-well structures respectively.