AB5 toxins of pathogenic bacteria enter host cells and utilize the retrograde trafficking pathway to translocate to the cytoplasm and exert its pathogenesis. Cholera toxin and Shiga toxin reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and the A subunit undergoes redox regulation by ER proteins to become active fragments, which pass through the ER membrane and translocate to the cytoplasm. By acting on molecular targets in the cytoplasm, the normal function of host cells are disrupted, causing diseases. ER chaperone proteins such as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) induce conformational changes triggered by the reduction of disulfide bonds in the A subunit. This is thought to be dependent on cysteine thiol-mediated redox regulation, but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. On the other hand, subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB), produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), localizes to the ER without translocating to the cytoplasm and cleaves BiP as a substrate. Therefore, it is thought that ER stress-based cytotoxicity and intestinal bleeding occur without translocating to the cytoplasm. We reported that PDI is involved in BiP cleavage through SubAB localization to the ER. Like other AB5 toxins, this indicates the involvement of redox regulation via chaperone proteins in the ER, but also suggests that SubAB does not translocate to the cytoplasm because it cleaves BiP. Although there are few reports on the redox state of ER protein thiols, it is suggested that polysulfidation, which is discussed in this symposium, may be involved.