Background: Few researches have reported the relationship between surgical skill and outcome on gastric cancer surgery. To prevent complication after gastrectomy, we need to identify specific manipulation or techniques that can increase the risk. In the present report, we attempt to identify techniques that directly cause intra-abdominal infectious complications (IAICs).
Methods: This is a study protocol. We planned the multicenter case-control study, where the cases are patients who developed IAICs and the controls were those who did not develop IAICs after gastrectomy. All of one-hundred patients diagnosed as clinical ≤T4a and ≤N1, and underwent distal gastrectomy are extracted. Two raters blinded to the outcome evaluate each video after editing to remove personal information from the operating videos. We then identified items with significant difference between the two groups for consideration of whether or not they were risk factors for IAIC.
Tumors comprise two types of non-cancerous cells, first recruited cells such as stem cells and macrophages, and second, tissue-steady cells that are part of the tissue including adipose cells, fibroblasts, and steady macrophage-derived cells, all having a significant impact on tumor progression. This review addresses some effects of stem cells on cancer advancement as the predominant outcome of stem cell therapy on cancer cell lines revealed controversial results. In addition, this review will address some reasons of distinct cancer responses and hypotheses the notion of unfolded protein response as a key switch in cancer development.
Background/Aims: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (p-NETs) are a group of functionally and biologically heterogeneous tumors which are clinically rare. Here we report the clinical features, treatment strategies and survival of p-NET patients treated at a single institution.
Methods: Patients pathologically diagnosed with p-NETs and treated at The American University of Beirut Medical Center between 2005 and 2015 were recruited. Tissue specimens from patients’ samples were collected during surgical resections and needle biopsies performed at our center to determine tumor characteristics. The 2010 WHO NET and ENETs classification systems were used in concordance for all cases to determine staging. The WHO divided the p-NET grades into: Grade 1 neuroendocrine tumors (G1), Grade 2 neuroendocrine tumors (G2), Grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinoma (G3) and mixed adeno and neuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Survival analyses using Kaplan-Meier were plotted using SPSS 23.0 (IBM).
Results: We identified 27 p-NET patients with pathological reports. Median age of patients at diagnosis was 52 years. The majority were males (63%). The proportions of patients with pathologic TNM stages IA/B, IIA/B, III, and IV disease were 18%, 22%, 4%, and 56% of all patients. Seventeen patients (63%) underwent surgery and eighteen patients (67%) received chemotherapy and/or somatostatin analogues. Median survival of the whole cohort was more than 10.8 years while the median survival of patients diagnosed at stage IV was 6 years. The one and two-year survival rates for the entire cohort were 97% and 83%, respectively. The one and two-year survival rates of stage IV were 93% and 70%, respectively.
Conclusion: Because of their variable presentations and non-standardized treatment plans, p-NETs still represent a significant clinical challenge and their management requires a coordinated multidisciplinary approach.