Probiotics are considered effective microbial dietary supplements that provide beneficial effects to consumers, usually by restoring or improving gut microflora. Goat milk is one of the rich sources of probiotics as well as nutrients. Therefore, the primary aim of this research was to isolate and evaluate the potential of novel indigenous probiotic strains present in goat milk. Six different raw goat milk samples were collected from different areas of Multan, Pakistan. For bacterial characterization, samples were cultured and isolated on MRS agar plates for different morphological and biochemical tests. The probiotic potential of the six isolates, all of which were gram positive (G1, G2, G3, G4, G5, and G6) and five of which were catalase negative (all except G1), were assessed via a milk coagulation assay and antimicrobial activity, pH tolerance, phenol tolerance, and sodium chloride (NaCl) tolerance tests, which revealed that all the isolates coagulated in milk and showed protease and lipase activity, except G3. All six isolates showed tolerance against 0.2% phenol and 2–4% NaCl and were able to survive in both alkaline and acidic conditions. Only five isolates showed antimicrobial activity against indicator strain Aspergillus niger strain STA9, validating their probiotic nature. The most potent bile-tolerant and bacteriocin-producing isolate, G1, also showed γ-hemolytic activity and resistance to penicillin but showed susceptibility to other antibiotics. The lactic acid-producing (0.60% titratable acidity) G1 isolate was identified as a novel strain of Mammaliicoccus sciuri based on 16S rDNA sequencing. The above findings suggest that the potent M. sciuri GMN01 strain can serve as a potential probiotic strain. A potent probiotic strain isolated from raw goat milk could be utilized as a dietary supplement, and goat milk could become an alternative to other sources of milk, particularly cow milk. However, safety aspects of this strain require further investigation because the present safety tests are insufficient to conclude that the GMN01 isolate is safe.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of gestational weight gain on total oxidative stress (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxidative stress index (OSI), dietary antioxidant intake, and the gut microbiome. The study was carried out on 40 pregnant women divided as follows: a) normal prepregnancy weight and gestational weight gain of 11.5−16.0 kg (n=10) b) normal prepregnancy weight and gestational weight gain of >16.0 kg (n=10) c) obese before pregnancy and gestational weight gain of 5−9 kg (n=10) and d) obese before pregnancy and gestational weight gain of >9.0 kg (n=10). Serum TOS and TAC levels, dietary antioxidant intake, and microbiome diversity of the gut microbiome were evaluated during the third trimester of pregnancy. A positive correlation was found between body mass index (BMI) in the third trimester and serum TOS levels and OSI. In women with normal prepregnancy weight, an increase in the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla was observed when gestational weight gain was above the recommended values (p<0.05). In women who were obese before pregnancy, an increase only in the Bacteroidetes phylum was observed when gestational weight gain was above the recommended values (p<0.05). A positive correlation was found between Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and OSI, and a negative correlation was found between Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and dietary antioxidant intake (p<0.05). Prepregnancy body weight, high serum TOS level, and dietary antioxidant intake are determinant factors for microbial diversity, with increased serum TOS levels caused by increased gestational weight gain.
Tannins (TAs) are an anti-nutritional substance commonly used as a natural feed additive for livestock. However, our previous study described the dose-dependent adverse effects of TA on immune responses and growth in chickens. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of a probiotic preparation (BT) consisting of three different bacteria (Bacillus mesenteric, Clostridium butyricum, and Streptococcus faecalis) against TA-induced immunosuppression in chickens. Forty chicks were divided into 4 groups as follows: the CON group (basal diet), BT group supplemented with 3 g BT/kg diet, tannic acid (TA) group supplemented with 30 g TA/kg diet, and BT+TA group supplemented with 3 g BT/kg diet + 30 g TA/kg diet. The feeding trial lasted for 35 days. Lymphocyte subset, macrophage phagocytosis, cytokine mRNA expression, and primary and secondary IgY immune responses were evaluated. BT supplementation significantly improved TA-induced reductions in final body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, and relative weights of lymphoid organs compared with the TA group. Furthermore, in the spleen and cecal tonsil (CT), the relative populations of CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD8+ cells in the BT+TA group were significantly ameliorated compared with the TA group. Additionally, comparison with the TA group showed that the chickens in the BT+TA group had an improved relative population of B cells in the CT and that macrophage phagocytosis in the spleen was significantly increased. Chickens in the BT+TA group showed significant increases in IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA expression in the spleen compared with the TA group. The primary and secondary IgY responses were significantly improved. These results revealed that supplementation with BT protects against TA-induced immunosuppression in chickens.
Secretory IgA plays an important role in the mucosal immune system for protection against pathogens. However, the antigens recognized by these antibodies have only been partially studied. We comprehensively investigated the antigens bound by salivary IgA in healthy adults using microbial protein microarrays. This confirmed that saliva contained IgA antibodies that bind to a variety of pathogenic microorganisms, including spike proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and other human coronavirus species. Also, many subtypes and strains of influenza virus were bound, regardless of the seasonal or vaccine strains. Salivary IgA also bound many serogroups and serovars of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Taken together, these findings suggest that salivary IgA, which exhibits broad reactivity, is likely an essential element of the mucosal immune system at the forefront of defense against infection.
Creatine is an organic compound which is utilized in biological activities, especially for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in the phosphocreatine system. This is a well-known biochemical reaction that is generally recognized as being mainly driven in specific parts of the body, such as the skeletal muscle and brain. However, our report shows a novel aspect of creatine utilization and ATP synthesis in innate immune cells. Creatine supplementation enhanced immune responses in neutrophils, such as cytokine production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, phagocytosis, and NETosis, which were characterized as antibacterial activities. This creatine-induced functional upregulation of neutrophils provided a protective effect in a murine bacterial sepsis model. The mortality rate in mice challenged with Escherichia coli K-12 was decreased by creatine supplementation compared with the control treatment. Corresponding to this decrease in mortality, we found that creatine supplementation decreased blood pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and bacterial colonization in organs. Creatine supplementation significantly increased the cellular ATP level in neutrophils compared with the control treatment. This ATP increase was due to the phosphocreatine system in the creatine-treated neutrophils. In addition, extracellular creatine was used in this ATP synthesis, as inhibition of creatine uptake abolished the increase in ATP in the creatine-treated neutrophils. Thus, creatine is an effective nutrient for modifying the immunological function of neutrophils, which contributes to enhancement of antibacterial immunity.
Dysbiosis of gut microbiota has adverse effects on host health. This study aimed to determine the effects of changes of faecal microbiota in obese and diabetic rats on the imputed production of enzymes involved in the metabolism of glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and succinate. The levels of glutamate decarboxylase, GABA transaminase, succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, and methylisocitrate lyase were reduced or absent in diabetic rats compared with controls and obese rats. Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) was significantly reduced in obese rats compared with control rats, while the other enzymes were unaltered; different bacterial taxa are suggested to be involved. Levels of bacterial enzymes were inversely correlated with the blood glucose level. These findings suggest that the absence of GABA and reduced succinate metabolism from gut microbiota contribute to the diabetic state in rats.