Nowadays, chronic non-communicable diseases have become a significant social problem of healthcare which threatens human health along with their rapid progress of morbidity and mortality. How to develop potential, intangible resources to compensate for insufficient physical resources is urgent. By analyzing literature reporting the association between social capital and chronic non-communicable diseases systematically, evidence was found for a positive association between social capital and chronic non-communicable disease prevention and control. The social capital theory may provide a new idea to solve the problem.
In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs) were found to play critical roles in many important biological processes. On the other hand, the rapid development of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) help identify potential genetic variants associated with the disease phenotypic variance. Therefore, we suggested a combined analysis of microRNA expression profiling with genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotyping to identify potential disease-related biomarkers. Considering functional SNPs in miRNA genes or target sites might be important signals associated with human complex diseases, we constructed a miRNA-miRNA synergistic network related to coronary artery disease (CAD) by performing a genome-wide scan for SNPs in human miRNA 3' -untranslated regions (UTRs) target sites and computed potential SNP cooperation effects contributing to disease based on potential miRNA-SNP interactions reported recently. Furthermore, we identified some potential CAD-related miRNAs by analyzing the constructed miRNAmiRNA synergistic network. As a result, the predicted miRNA-miRNA network and miRNA clusters were validated by significantly high interaction effects of CAD-related miRNAs. Accurate classification performances were obtained for all of the identified miRNA clusters, and the sensitivity and specificity were all more than 90%. The network topological analysis confirmed some novel CAD-related miRNAs identified recently by experiments. Our method might help to understand miRNA function and CAD disease, as well as to explore the novel mechanisms involved.
CD117 is a cytokine receptor expressed on the surface of hematopoietic stem cells with a likely role in cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. In order to study the differentiation activity of porcine CD117 hematopoietic cells in vitro and in vivo we prepared an anti-swine CD117 Mab (2A1) with high specificity for flow-cytometrical analysis. The 2A1 Mab did not recognize mouse or human mast cells suggesting that 2A1 is species-specific. Swine bone marrow (BM) CD117+ cells differentiated in vitro mainly into erythroid and monocyte lineages in the methylcellulose-based colony assay. When the swine BM CD117+ cells were transplanted in vivo into immunodeficient NOG (NOD/SCID/IL-2gc-null) mice, a significant amount of swine CD45+ leukocytes, including CD3 positive T cells, were developed in the mice. These results revealed that the swine BM CD117+ cells possess hematopoietic stem/progenitor activity and when monitored in immunodeficient mice or in vitro they can develop into lymphoid, erythroid, and myeloid cells efficiently with the new monoclonal antibody.
Milk is a common food, which is consumed all over the world. It is an important source of calcium. Meanwhile, it provides abundant protein, minerals and vitamins. However, pathogenic bacteria which exist in milk not only causes nutrition loss, but also produces toxins which may cause diarrhea, food poisoning, and even death. In order to control the microbial level of raw milk and eliminate the contamination of materials, this assay applied loop-mediated isothermal amplification to explore a new way to detect enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in raw milk. The best reaction condition in detecting ETEC from raw milk was confirmed to be: 0.016 μM each of forward outer primer (primer F3) and backward outer primer (primer B3), 0.128 μM each of forward inner primer (primer FIP) and backward inner primer (primer BIP), 0.45 μM deoxy-ribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTPs), 2IU Bst DNA polymerase large fragment and template DNA were incubated at 63°C for 60 min. LAMP was proved to be specific, rapid and sensitive in detecting pathogenic bacteria which exist in milk.
New-onset diabetes might help to yield biomarkers for the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (PaC). In this study, we computationally predicted and experimentally validated osteoprotegerin (OPG) being associated with pancreatic cancer related new-onset diabetes. We first performed a meta-analysis on microarray datasets to search for genes specifically highly expressed in PaC, and then filtered for cytokines involved in islet dysfunction. The expression of OPG in PaC and normal pancreas were validated by immunohistochemistry. Serum OPG levels in healthy controls, non-cancerous diabetes and PaC patients with or without diabetes were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In silico assay found that OPG up-regulated in PaC tissues in comparison to normal pancreas. Immunohistochemical data further confirmed that OPG was overexpressed in PaC samples. Furthermore, increased expression of OPG in PaC tissues correlated to the occurrence of new-onset diabetes, and adversely affected the patients' overall survival in both univariate and multivariate analysis. In addition, the serum levels of OPG were significantly higher in pancreatic cancer patients with new-onset diabetes than other groups including pancreatic patients without diabetes, new-onset type 2 diabetes and healthy controls. In conclusion, there is a close association between OPG and pancreatic cancer related new-onset diabetes, and OPG might serve as a potential biomarker for the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer from populations with new-onset diabetes.
Extremely elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with HIV and cryptococcal meningitis is a poor prognostic predictor of death during initial therapy. The risks associated with implanting a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt into immunocompromised patients with ongoing CSF infection have historically discouraged surgeons from implanting CSF shunts in patients with HIV and cryptococcal meningitis. An unanswered question is whether ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts can effectively provide long-term treatment for patients with intracranial hypertension and HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in China. Outcomes for 9 patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis who were given VP shunts for increased ICP were retrospectively analyzed. Each patient's age, sex, clinical manifestations, CD4+ lymphocyte count, HIV viral load, neurological status, CSF features, image findings, anad other opportunistic infections were recorded for analysis. All patients had signs and symptoms of increased ICP, including headaches, nausea, and vomiting. Seven patients (77.78%) had visual loss due to persistent papilledema. The median time from diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis to VP shunting in the 9 patients was 5 months (range 0.5-12.5 months). Seven patients (77.78%) had good outcomes, with recovery from 1 month to 48 months. Two patients had poor outcomes; one died six months after shunting due to severe adverse reactions to antiretroviral drugs, and the other died two weeks after surgery. Patients with intracranial hypertension and HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis who cannot tolerate cessation of external lumbar CSF drainage or frequent lumbar punctures may be eligible for VP shunt placement, despite severe immunosuppression and persistent CSF cryptococcal infection.
Adjuvant therapy after resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is limited. Here, we evaluated the effects of postoperative sorafenib on recurrence and survival in HCC patients. Recurrence-free survival and overall survival were analyzed as the main endpoint, recurrence rate, and mortality rate were analyzed as second endpoint. Furthermore, post-recurrence survival was also analyzed. Clinicopathological factors were compared between sorafenib and control groups. Seventy-eight patients were eligible for final data analysis (46 in control group; 32 in sorafenib group). Sorafenib did not significantly prolong recurrence-free survival (11.0 months in the control group vs. 11.7 months in the sorafenib group, p = 0.702), but significantly prolonged overall survival (32.4 vs. 25.0 months, p = 0.046). Sorafenib did not reduce recurrence rate (67.7% vs. 78.3%, p = 0.737), but significantly reduced mortality rate (28.1% vs. 60.9%, p = 0.004). The increased post-recurrence survival (22.2 vs. 4.4 months, p = 0.003) may have contributed to the survival benefit after recurrence in the sorafenib group. Adjuvant sorafenib did not decrease tumor recurrence, but significantly reduced mortality and prolonged overall survival of HCC patients after curative resection, probably by inhibiting tumor growth after tumor recurrence.
Telaprevir (TVR), a direct -acting protease inhibitor, was recently reported to improve treatment efficacy when used in combination with peg-interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) as triple therapy for HCV in non-transplant patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of TVR-based triple therapy among Japanese living donor liver transplant (LDLT) recipients who had been resistant to dual treatment with PEG-IFN and RBV. Among 133 HCV-positive LDLT recipients, 8 null responders during or after dual treatment with PEG-IFN and RBV were finally indicated for TVR-based triple therapy after treatment. All 8 patients had been resistant to dual treatment with PEG-IFN and RBV. While the cyclosporine trough level was well controlled with an 80% dose reduction during TVR administration, the end - of - treatment response rate was only 25% (2/8), with 63% (5/8) of patients developing anemia that required a blood transfusion and 50% (4/8) of patients developing leukopenia that required filgrastim. Dose reduction or treatment discontinuation was required in all cases. Based on the poor efficacy and the unacceptable high rate of cytopenic events, TVR-based triple therapy is not indicated for those resistant to dual treatment with PEG-IFN and RBV.
More affordable international travel, global trade and commerce, and the exporting of labor have all contributed to international population mobility. Furthermore, population migration leads to the incidence or recurrence of once-controlled diseases. Evidence shows that the popularity of travel can impact health through imported infections and illness. Imported cutaneous myiasis, a type of skin lesion, has attracted the attention of the current authors. This condition often occurs among travelers and it has been reported in several non-endemic countries. However, diagnosis of myiasis and identification of the larvae are difficult. Advances in molecular detection techniques could provide a new way to identify larvae. This study used sequencing of the 28S rRNA gene and morphology to identify the larva infesting the upper arm of a Chinese woman returning from Uganda. The larva was identified as Cordylobia anthropophaga (C. anthropophaga) and the sequences were submitted to GenBank (accession number: KM506761). As foreign interaction increases, imported health problems may become more common in China. Knowledge about various pathogens needs to be increased and molecular methods need to be used to accurately identify those pathogens.
Following Typhoon Haiyan, the World Health Organization (WHO) has been supporting the Government of the Philippines in coordinating the incoming relief supplies from more than 30 international humanitarian health or¬ganizations. During the 10 days in Abuyong, Philippines, the Chinese medical rescue team consisting of 50 experts specialized in clinical medicine and disease prevention and control action was taken including, medical treatment, environmental disinfection and health education. A total of 1,831 cases and 2,144 outpatients were treated, blood tests, B-ultrasound, electrocardiogram (ECG) and other laboratory examinations were carried out for more than 615 patients; a cumulative 90,000 square meters in external environment were disinfected, and more than 500 health education materials were handed out. Besides, measures of purifying drinking water, and rebuilding the local hospital have also been carried out. The international emergency response to the Haiyan typhoon in Philippines contributed to reconstruct the local disaster health system by the activities from international medical emergency rescue. To improve the capacity of international medical emergency rescue in disaster, the special project of foreign medical emergency rescue should be set in countries' medical emergency rescue, and disaster emergency medical rescue should be reserved as a conventional capacity.