Circulation Journal
Online ISSN : 1347-4820
Print ISSN : 1346-9843
ISSN-L : 1346-9843
最新号
選択された号の論文の21件中1~21を表示しています
Focus on issue: Arrhythmia / Electrophysiology
Original Articles
Catheter Ablation
  • Taiki Sato, Yohei Sotomi, Shungo Hikoso, Daisaku Nakatani, Hiroya Mizu ...
    原稿種別: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    専門分野: Catheter Ablation
    2022 年 86 巻 8 号 p. 1207-1216
    発行日: 2022/07/25
    公開日: 2022/07/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/12/15
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    Background: Women experience more severe arrhythmogenic substrates. This study hypothesized that an extensive ablation strategy, such as linear ablation and/or complex fractionated atrial electrogram (CFAE) ablation in addition to pulmonary vein isolation (PVI-plus), might be effective for women, whereas the PVI alone strategy (PVI-alone) might be sufficient for men to maintain sinus rhythm. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis.

    Methods and Results: This study is a post-hoc subanalysis of the EARNEST-PVI trial focusing on sex differences in the efficacies of different ablation strategies. The EARNEST-PVI trial was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, and open-label non-inferiority trial in patients with persistent AF. The primary endpoint was recurrence of AF, atrial flutter, or atrial tachycardia. The EARNEST-PVI trial randomized 376 (76%) men (PVI-alone 186, PVI-plus 190) and 121 (24%) women (PVI-alone 63, PVI-plus 58). The event rate was significantly lower for men and numerically lower for women in the PVI-plus than the PVI-alone group, and there was no interaction between men and women (hazard ratio, 0.641; 95% confidence interval, 0.417–0.985; P value, 0.043 for men vs. hazard ratio, 0.661; 95% confidence interval, 0.352–1.240; P value, 0.197 for women; P value for interaction, 0.989).

    Conclusions: The superiority of the extensive ablation strategy vs. the PVI-alone strategy for persistent AF was consistent across both sexes.

  • Yasushi Mukai
    原稿種別: EDITORIAL
    2022 年 86 巻 8 号 p. 1217-1218
    発行日: 2022/07/25
    公開日: 2022/07/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/02/01
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  • Eiji Nyuta, Masao Takemoto, Togo Sakai, Yoshibumi Antoku, Takahiro Mit ...
    原稿種別: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    専門分野: Catheter Ablation
    2022 年 86 巻 8 号 p. 1219-1228
    発行日: 2022/07/25
    公開日: 2022/07/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/07/01
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    Background: The existence of epicardial connection(s) (ECs) between the pulmonary veins (PVs) and atrium may hinder establishing a complete PV antrum isolation (AI) (PVAI) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and location of ECs inside the conventional PVAI lines.

    Methods and Results: Three-hundred consecutive patients with non-valvular AF were evaluated. This study revealed that: (1) the prevalence of patients with ECs and the number of ECs per patient between the PVs and atrium became significantly greater, respectively, in accordance with the progression of paroxysmal to long-lasting AF and left atrial enlargement; (2) some ECs were located at sites far distal to the PVAI lines; (3) 25% of ECs could be detected only by high-density mapping catheters, but not by conventional circular mapping catheters; (4) a B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level of 176.6pg/mL and left atrial volume (LAV) of 129.0 mL may be important predictors of the presence of ECs; and (5) the rate of conduction of ECs from the right PVs was dominantly to the atrium and His-bundle, and that from the left PVs to the coronary sinus was most dominant.

    Conclusions: The PVAI may not be completed by using only a conventional PVAI method, and additional EC ablation inside the PVAI lines detected using high-density mapping may be able to achieve a more complete PVAI.

  • Takayuki Ogawa, Seigo Yamashita, Hirotsuna Oseto, Masaaki Yokoyama, Ry ...
    原稿種別: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    専門分野: Catheter Ablation
    2022 年 86 巻 8 号 p. 1229-1236
    発行日: 2022/07/25
    公開日: 2022/07/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/07/01
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    Background: Pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation is rare; however, it remains a serious complication. PV angioplasty is reportedly an effective therapy; however, a dedicated device for PV angioplasty has not been developed, and the detailed procedural methods remain undetermined. This study describes the symptoms, indications, treatment strategies, and long-term outcomes for PV stenosis after AF ablation.

    Methods and Results: This study retrospectively analyzed 7 patients with PV stenosis after catheter ablation for AF and who had undergone PV angioplasty at our hospital during 2015–2021. PV stenosis occurred in the left superior (5 patients) and left inferior (2 patients) PV. Six patients had hemoptysis, chest pain, and dyspnea. Seven de novo lesions were treated using balloon angioplasty (BA) (3 patients), a bare metal stent (BMS) (3 patients), and a drug-coated balloon (DCB) (1 patient). The restenosis rate was 42.9% (n=3; 2 patients in the BA group and 1 patient in the DCB group). The repeat treatment rate was 28.6% (2 patients in the BA group). Stenting was performed as repeat treatment. One patient with subsequent repeat restenosis development underwent BA. Ten PV angioplasties were performed; there were no major complications.

    Conclusions: Regarding PV angioplasty after ablation therapy for AF, stenting showed superior long-term PV patency than BA alone; therefore, it should be considered as a standard first-line approach.

Atrial Fibrillation
  • Takahide Sano, Shingo Matsumoto, Takanori Ikeda, Shunsuke Kuroda, Take ...
    原稿種別: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    専門分野: Atrial Fibrillation
    2022 年 86 巻 8 号 p. 1237-1244
    発行日: 2022/07/25
    公開日: 2022/07/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/01/26
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    Background: Both pre-existing atrial fibrillation (AF) and new-onset AF (NOAF) are observed in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, the effect of AF on clinical outcomes is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of AF, especially NOAF, on the outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

    Methods and Results: This study analyzed 673 COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular diseases and risk factors (CVDRF). Patients were divided into 3 groups; pre-existing AF (n=55), NOAF (n=28), and sinus rhythm (SR) (n=590). The baseline characteristics and in-hospital outcomes were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 68 years, 65.4% were male, and the in-hospital mortality rate was 15.6%. The NOAF group demonstrated a higher in-hospital mortality rate (42.9%) than the pre-existing AF (30.9%) and SR (11.2%) groups (P<0.001). Patients with NOAF had a higher incidence of acute respiratory syndrome, multiple organ disease, hemorrhage, and stroke than those with pre-existing AF and NOAF. NOAF was independently associated with in-hospital mortality after adjusting for pre-existing AF and 4C mortality score (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 4.71 [1.63–13.6], P<0.001).

    Conclusions: Patients with NOAF had significantly worse outcomes as compared to patients with pre-existing AF and SR. The incidence of NOAF would be a useful predictor of clinical outcomes during hospitalization.

  • Eiichi Watanabe, Naohiko Takahashi, Ronald Aronson, Ako Ohsawa, Yuriko ...
    原稿種別: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    専門分野: Atrial Fibrillation
    2022 年 86 巻 8 号 p. 1245-1251
    発行日: 2022/07/25
    公開日: 2022/07/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/02/05
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    Background: To determine the rate of undiagnosed atrial fibrillation (AF) we screened for AF using an oscillometric blood pressure (BP) monitor device followed by a single-lead handheld electrocardiogram (ECG), with confirmation by 12-lead ECG as the reference standard.

    Methods and Results: From October 2017 to August 2019, 1,148 patients were enrolled without known AF, who were aged ≥65 years with moderate-to-high stroke risk, at 71 centers in Japan. After exclusion of 7 patients with confirmed AF at the index visit, 1,141 patients were asked to use an oscillometric BP monitor twice daily for 2 weeks (max: 4 weeks) to detect an irregular pulse. The BP monitor detected an irregular pulse in 481 patients, of which 1 patient had confirmed AF. Thereafter, 480 patients were instructed to acquire ECGs twice daily for an additional 2 weeks (max: 4 weeks) using a single-lead handheld ECG device. The handheld ECG device detected irregular rhythm in 41 patients, of which 1 patient had confirmed AF. In total, undiagnosed AF was confirmed in 9 (0.8%) patients of the overall study cohort during the 24-week follow-up period.

    Conclusions: Sequential use of a BP monitor and handheld ECG for 4 weeks is a practical strategy for identifying undiagnosed AF in Japanese people at heightened risk of stroke.

  • Nobutoyo Masunaga, Hisashi Ogawa, Kimihito Minami, Kenjiro Ishigami, S ...
    原稿種別: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    専門分野: Atrial Fibrillation
    2022 年 86 巻 8 号 p. 1252-1262
    発行日: 2022/07/25
    公開日: 2022/07/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/07/01
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    Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) patients often have concomitant coronary artery disease (CAD); however, there are little data on clinical characteristics and outcomes of such patients in daily clinical practice in Japan.

    Methods and Results: The Fushimi AF Registry is a community-based prospective survey of AF patients in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, Japan. Follow-up data were available for 4,464 patients, and the median follow up was 5.1 (interquartile range: 2.3–8.0) years. History of CAD was present in 647 patients (14%); of those patients, 267 (41%) had history of myocardial infarction (MI). Patients with CAD were older and had more comorbidities than those without CAD. The crude incidences (% per patient-year) of cardiovascular events were significantly higher in patients with CAD than those without CAD (cardiac death: 1.8 vs. 0.7, stroke or systemic embolism [SE]: 2.9 vs. 2.1, MI: 0.6 vs. 0.1, composite of those events: 5.1 vs. 2.8, respectively, all log-rank P<0.01). After multivariate adjustment, concomitant CAD was associated with incidence of cardiac events, and history of MI was associated with incidence of MI; however, neither history of CAD nor MI was associated with the incidence of stroke/SE.

    Conclusions: In Japanese AF patients, concomitant CAD was associated with higher prevalences of major co-morbidities and higher incidences of cardiovascular events; however, history of CAD was not associated with the incidence of stroke/SE.

  • Tomoko Machino-Ohtsuka, Daishi Nakagawa, Noor K. Albakaa, Tomofumi Nak ...
    原稿種別: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    専門分野: Atrial Fibrillation
    2022 年 86 巻 8 号 p. 1263-1272
    発行日: 2022/07/25
    公開日: 2022/07/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/07/01
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    Background: The left atrial appendage (LAA) is a therapeutic target for preventing cardioembolic stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). A large LAA ostium limits percutaneous LAA closure. This study investigated the characteristics and factors associated with a large LAA ostium in Japanese patients with NVAF.

    Methods and Results: In 1,102 NVAF patients, the maximum LAA diameter was measured using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). A large LAA ostium was defined by a maximum diameter of >30 mm. Forty-four participants underwent repeated TEEs, and changes in LAA size under lasting AF were assessed. A large LAA ostium was observed in 3.1% of all participants and 8.9% of patients with long-standing persistent AF (LSAF). The large LAA group had greater CHA2DS2-VASc (P=0.024) and HAS-BLED scores (P=0.046) and a higher prevalence of LAA thrombus (P=0.004) than did the normal LAA group. LSAF, moderate or severe mitral regurgitation, left atrial volume ≥42 mL/m2, E/E’ ratio ≥9.5, and left ventricular mass ≥85 mg/m2were independently associated with a large LAA ostium (P<0.001, P<0.001, P=0.009, P=0.009, and P=0.032, respectively). In 44 patients with lasting AF, the LAA ostial diameter increased over time (P<0.001).

    Conclusions: NVAF patients with a large LAA ostium may have a higher risk of stroke and bleeding. LSAF and factors leading to LA overload may be closely associated with LAA ostial dilatation and can promote it.

Ventricular Arrhythmias
  • Kazutaka Nakasone, Makoto Nishimori, Kunihiko Kiuchi, Masakazu Shinoha ...
    原稿種別: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    専門分野: Ventricular Arrhythmias
    2022 年 86 巻 8 号 p. 1273-1280
    発行日: 2022/07/25
    公開日: 2022/07/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/04/07
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    Background: Several algorithms have been proposed for differentiating the right and left outflow tracts (RVOT/LVOT) arrhythmia origins from 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs); however, the procedure is complicated. A deep learning (DL) model, a form of artificial intelligence, can directly use ECGs and depict the importance of the leads and waveforms. This study aimed to create a visualized DL model that could classify arrhythmia origins more accurately.

    Methods and Results: This study enrolled 80 patients who underwent catheter ablation. A convolutional neural network-based model that could classify arrhythmia origins with 12-lead ECGs and visualize the leads that contributed to the diagnosis using a gradient-weighted class activation mapping method was developed. The average prediction results of the origins by the DL model were 89.4% (88.2–90.6) for accuracy and 95.2% (94.3–96.2) for recall, which were significantly better than when a conventional algorithm is used. The ratio of the contribution to the prediction differed between RVOT and LVOT origins. Although leads V1 to V3 and the limb leads had a focused balance in the LVOT group, the contribution ratio of leads aVR, aVL, and aVF was higher in the RVOT group.

    Conclusions: This study diagnosed the arrhythmia origins more accurately than the conventional algorithm, and clarified which part of the 12-lead waveforms contributed to the diagnosis. The visualized DL model was convincing and may play a role in understanding the pathogenesis of arrhythmias.

  • Yasushi Mukai, Takeshi Tohyama, Kazuo Sakamoto
    原稿種別: EDITORIAL
    2022 年 86 巻 8 号 p. 1281-1282
    発行日: 2022/07/25
    公開日: 2022/07/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/05/18
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Devices
  • Kenichi Sasaki, Daisuke Togashi, Ikutaro Nakajima, Taro Suchi, Yui Nak ...
    原稿種別: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    専門分野: Devices
    2022 年 86 巻 8 号 p. 1283-1291
    発行日: 2022/07/25
    公開日: 2022/07/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/01/29
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    Background:Implanting a ventricular demand leadless pacemaker (VVI-LPM) for patients with non-atrial fibrillation (AF) bradyarrhythmias such as sick sinus syndrome (SSS) or high-grade (i.e., second- or third-degree) atrioventricular (AV) block is not recommended unless they have limited vascular access or a high infection risk; nevertheless, an unexpectedly high number of VVI-LPM implantations have been performed. This study investigated the clinical outcomes of these unusual uses.

    Methods and Results:This study retrospectively analyzed 193 patients who were newly implanted with a VVI-LPM or an atrioventricular synchronous transvenous pacemaker (DDD-TPM) for non-AF bradyarrhythmias at a high-volume center in Japan from September 2017 to September 2020. Propensity score-matching produced 2 comparable cohorts treated with a VVI-LPM or DDD-TPM (n=58 each). Each group had 20 (34%) patients with SSS and 38 (66%) patients with high-grade AV block. During a median follow up of 733 (interquartile range 395−997) days, there were no significant differences between the VVI-LPM and DDD-TPM groups regarding late device-related adverse events (0% vs. 4%, log-rank P=0.155), but the VVI-LPM group had a significantly increased readmission rate for heart failure (HF) (29% vs. 2%, log-rank P=0.001) and a tendency to have higher all-cause mortality (28% vs. 4%, log-rank P=0.059).

    Conclusions:The implantation of a VVI-LPM for non-AF bradyarrhythmias increased the incidence of HF-related rehospitalization at the mid-term follow up compared to the use of a DDD-TPM.

  • Tomomi Matsubara, Masataka Sumiyoshi, Atsushi Kimura, Asuka Minami-Tak ...
    原稿種別: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    専門分野: Devices
    2022 年 86 巻 8 号 p. 1292-1297
    発行日: 2022/07/25
    公開日: 2022/07/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/31
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    Background: This study investigated whether the age of patients undergoing pacemaker implantation is increasing.

    Methods and Results: This study retrospectively reviewed the consecutive cases of 3,582 patients who underwent an initial pacemaker implantation at our hospitals because of symptomatic bradyarrhythmias between 1970 and 2019. The exclusion criteria were: patients with AV block due to cardiac surgery or AV junction ablation, and patients aged <20 years. The patients were divided into 5×10-year groups: those treated in the 1970s (1970–1979), 1980s (1980–1989), 1990s (1990–1999), 2000s (2000–2009), and 2010s (2010–2019). A total of 3,395 patients satisfied the study criteria. The average age at which the patients underwent a first pacemaker implantation increased across the 10-year periods: 63.7±13.2 years in the 1970s, 66.2±12.6 years (1980s), 69.1±12.4 years (1990s), 72.0±11.1 years (2000s), and 75.8±10.0 years (2010s) and advanced significantly in the 1990s, 2000s, and 2010s compared to the 1970s (all P<0.001). The ratio of patients aged ≥80 and ≥90 years increased from 10.6% and 0% in the 1970 s to 38.2% (P<0.001) and 5.2% (P= 0.017) in the 2010s, respectively.

    Conclusions: The average age at initial pacemaker implantation increased by 12.1 years over the last 50 years in Japan. In particular, the ratios of ≥80 and ≥90 years as the patients age increased significantly.

Population Science
  • Sabrina Ahmed, Takashi Hisamatsu, Aya Kadota, Akira Fujiyoshi, Hiroyos ...
    原稿種別: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    専門分野: Population Science
    2022 年 86 巻 8 号 p. 1298-1306
    発行日: 2022/07/25
    公開日: 2022/07/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/02/19
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    Background: Premature atrial contractions (PACs) are predictors of atrial fibrillation, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality. The present study aimed to assess relevant factors for PACs among a general population of Japanese men.

    Methods and Results: This study conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study among 517 men, aged 40–79 years, with neither apparent myocardial infarction nor atrial fibrillation. 24-h Holter electrocardiography to assess PAC frequency was used. Age, body mass index, height, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, mean heart rate, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and lipid-lowering therapy were included in multivariable negative binomial regression analyses to assess correlation for the number of PACs per hour. Almost all participants (99%) had at least 1 PAC in 1 h (median number 2.84 PACs per h). In multivariable negative binomial regression after adjusting for all covariates simultaneously, age (relative risk [95% confidence interval], 1.30 [1.08–1.57] per 1-standard deviation [SD] increment), height (1.19 [1.02–1.39] per 1-SD increment), triglycerides (0.79 [0.65–0.97] per 1-SD increment), mean heart rate (0.69 [0.59–0.80] per 1-SD increment), physical activity (0.63 [0.43–0.93]), current smoking (1.69 [1.06–2.69]), current moderate (1.97 [1.23–3.16]) and heavy (1.84 [1.12–3.01]) alcohol consumption were independently associated with PAC frequency.

    Conclusions: PAC frequency was independently associated with age, height, smoking, alcohol consumption, heart rate, physical activity, and triglycerides.

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