We investigated the effect of processing fluency induced by spatial cueing on recognition memory judgments. Participants memorized pictures of everyday objects, and their spatial attention was manipulated in a Remember/Know recognition memory test. Stimulus location was either predicted (valid condition) or unpredicted (invalid condition) using an arrow cue. The results revealed that familiarity-based false recognition increased in the invalid condition. In the invalid condition, participants may have attributed part of the perceived disfluency to the spatial cue and overestimated the fluency for the stimulus, leading to increased false recognition. In contrast, in the valid condition, participants may have attributed some parts of the perceived fluency to the spatial cue and underestimated the fluency for the stimulus, leading to decreased false recognition. In short, spatial cueing induces reasoning about the source of fluency and biases recognition memory.
The length effect in word recognition refers to the phenomenon that the shorter a word is, the faster it is recognized than longer words. Korean studies reported some evidence for the opposite effect of word length: Shorter words, mono-syllabic words in particular, had a disadvantage in the lexical decision tasks (Kim, 2010; Park, 1993). One explanation for the disadvantage of very short words is that there is ideal word length—the most frequent length-- for each language. To test the ideal length, we conducted an experiment exploited the fact that there is no monosyllabic Korean verb because a verb must have an ending that marks its identity as a verb. Inconsistent with the ideal word length, the results showed the bi-syllabic word disadvantage. To develop an alternative to the ideal length hypothesis, we pay attention to the role of morphological transparency in modulating the length effect. The implications of the results to commonality and specificity of languages and writing systems were discussed.
The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the difference between language control and cognitive control mechanism. Also, we investigate changes in cognitive control ability caused by studying foreign language. Two kinds of tasks have been used in the experiment, language switch task and response conflicted task. English was chosen as a foreign language to learn for four weeks. English listening comprehension condition was separated into two groups: one group is a pause group and the other group is a non-pause group. Language switch task used numeral stimuli and had two kinds of color conditions: one color condition was Korean reading and the other color condition was English reading. Response conflict task used two kind of conditions, congruent condition and incongruent condition. The result of this study is that participants’ reaction time was faster than before they studying English but there was no difference between the two conditions. However, item analysis shows significant differences between the conditions.
Three experiments were performed to examine whether the ambiguity advantage effect is determined by the number of meanings of Korean dictionary or of meanings consciously retrieved and to see if that effect is task-specific. In experiment 1 and 2, the lexical decision task was used, and in experiment 3, the word naming task was employed. The results of the experiment 1 and 2 showed the ambiguity advantage effect is mostly modulated by the number of meanings reported consciously by subjects not by the count of dictionary meanings. And also this effect was found in the word naming task, implicating that this effect is caused by the lexical stages common to two different tasks of lexical decision and naming.
Present study used event-related potential (ERPs) during visual priming task to examine the time course of the Korean prefix morpheme, semantic and orthographic component using a masked priming paradigm. The time windows of 300~500ms shows difference between orthography and semantic component. Within the time window 550~750ms, morphological component represent difference among orthographic and semantic component. The findings support that morphology has an effect on word recognition independently. Also, it concluded tentatively that morphological index dissociate from orthographic and semantic component is 550~750ms time windows.
TThis research was originally designed to contribute to the growing literature of deception-detection by examining the behavioral/neural differences between (1) lies of what people say (Speech-Lies) and of what people do (Action-Lies) and (2) a single liar in Exp. 1 versus a paired liar with detector in Exp. 2 & 3. Three experiments were conducted to examine the neural correlates for lies of Action (enactment of a presented sentence) and Speech (reading aloud of a presented sentence) in Exp. 1-3, and also for its detection in Exp. 2-3. Here, specifically, we focused on the behavioral and neural aspects of lie Detector in a face-to-face communication condition. The NIRS data of Detector in the left IPL and the right IFG for Lie showed higher neural activity than Truth, nevertheless the detection rates of a Detector did not show differences between Truth and Lie of the paired Liar.
We examined the effect of the working memory capacity (WMC) of older adult participants on tasks using touch interfaces, by using an extreme-groups design. Older participants (N = 100) completed a single tapping task and WMC tasks. To test if the response time in the single tapping task differed as a result of the WMC, We performed a 2 x 2 Analyses of Variance with WMC (high, n = 25 /low, n = 25) as the between-subjects factors and the tapping interface (a touch pen, a finger, or a computer mouse) as within-subject factors. The results suggested that the response time of participants with high WMC was shorter than the response time of participants with a low WMC, when using a touch pen and a computer mouse interface. The need for developing touch interfaces that are appropriate for individual differences in the WMC of aged people is discussed.