オブジェクトを思い通りに操作していると、それの動く方向に注意がひきつけられる。Nakashima (in press)は、実験参加者に画面内の円刺激をキー押しにより一方向に動かすよう教示したが、実際には円が90%（高主体感）、50%（低主体感）の確率で操作方向へ動くブロックを設けた。また、ブロック中、円が動かず、画面内にTとLの文字が呈示され、Tの向き判断を行う視覚課題試行を混ぜた。実験の結果、高主体感条件でのみ、円を動かそうとした位置での視覚課題成績が高かった。本研究では、主体感が生じにくい場合、視覚処理の偏りが全くないのかを検討するため、この実験データをブロックの前・後半に分けて分析した。その結果、低主体感条件であっても、ブロック前半では高主体感条件と同様の視覚処理の偏りが見られた。つまり、思い通りに動かないオブジェクトの操作時には、最初は動かそうと意図した位置への注意の移動が起こるが、徐々にそれが消失していくと考えられる。
The purpose of this study was to investigate the time-course of morphological processing using event-related potentials(ERPs) in Sino- Korean prefix derivational word. We conducted a lexical priming decision task comparing time-course of a morphological, a semantic, and an orthographic condition. The behavioral data showed significant positivity priming effect in a morphological and semantic priming condition. The ERP data revealed only significant morphological and semantic priming at N250(200-300ms). Also, a reduction of the N400(300-500ms) in the semantic condition. Also, increase of negativity amplitude of semantic priming in P600(550-750ms) observed. This result shows that the morpheme is mainly influenced by the semantic factor but not the orthographic factor from the onset to offset of the recognition of Sino-Korean prefix derivational word.
Yama et al. (2017) reported hindsight bias in perceptions of the muddiness and the predictability of a flash flood in a river, as part of the author’s expert testimony in a court trial. The defendants had taken children to the river to play when a flash flood occurred that led to the drowning of one child. The core question was if the defendants could have predicted the flood using a visible cue: the muddiness of the river. Participants who knew the outcome of flash flood estimated the river muddier. The instruction on causality between the muddiness and the flush flood was manipulated in this current study. Participants were grouped into two conditions: the control condition and the outcome condition. The hindsight bias was confirmed and participants judged the river as muddier when the causality was instructed. These data give practical indications for legal judgments in a court.
There is one emotion called “pleasure-in-others’-misfortune”, which is known as schadenfreude. Previous studies showed connections between schadenfreude and negative emotions, and especially they focused on the schadenfreude that was triggered by their enemies, but little was mentioned about the schadenfreude that was triggered by their friends. The purpose of this study is to explore the factors those would trigger schadenfreude both in friendship and hostile relationship. Four scenarios were prepared for two hundred and two participants (118 females, 84 males) asking about their feeling of schadenfreude and sympathy towards a close friend, an acquaintance, and an enemy. The importance of the scenarios and their personality as self-esteem, narcissism, and inferiority complex were also being questioned. Results showed that males tended to feel more schadenfreude than females especially with friends, and the importance of the misfortune was negatively correlated with people’s schadenfreude in friendship.
音楽のテンポの選好に関するこれまでの検討では、曲の既知性との関係、心拍数との関係、テンポそのものの速さの影響などが調べられている。しかし、曲の内容との関係についての検討は少ない。本報告では、楽譜上のテンポの指定が異なる3種の曲に対して、各々オリジナルテンポに対して85,90,95,100,105,110,115%に変化させた刺激曲を用意し、楽曲に対するテンポの良さを評定させた。その結果、遅い曲(Lento ma non troppo)に対しては、テンポの増減の影響はなく、中程度の曲(Allegretto)に対しては5%程度の増加が最大値となり、速い曲(presto)に対してはオリジナル曲の速度以上が好まれ、それ以下は評価が低いステップ上の評価結果になった。これ等の結果から、曲の内容によってテンポの良さの評価に及ぼす影響が異なることが明らかになった。
Previous studies have suggested that experiences in VR can replace the experiences in real life. However, it is possible that the experience in real may affect the "presence" of experience in VR. Previous studies have shown that time evaluation does not differ between VR and reality. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there was a difference in the time evaluation when experiencing bungee jump in VR depending on whether bungee jump was experienced.
Participants were asked to put on a Head-Mounted Display to enjoy the bungee jump in VR and to measure the time until they rebound in bungee jump in VR.
As a result, it has been found that those who have ever experienced bungee jump evaluate time longer in bungee jump in VR than those who have not. We further discuss the result from the viewpoint of time estimation.
ピッチの高い音に対して空間的に高い位置にあるキーで反応すると，低いキーで反応する時よりも反応が速い。この現象はSpatial-Musical Association of Response Codes (SMARC)効果と呼ばれ，音の表象は空間的であることを示していると考えられてきた。しかし，人間はピッチの高い音に対して空間的に高い位置にその音源を自動的に定位する傾向(音源定位の錯覚)があるため，SMARC効果が(a)音源定位の錯覚と反応の対応によって生じているのか，あるいは(b)音の空間的表象と反応の対応によって生じているのか，を切り分けることができなかった。そこで本研究は，聴覚刺激の代わりに音の高さを表す単語(ド，レ，ミなど)を視覚的に呈示して，SMARC効果が生じるのかを調べた。実験の結果，聴覚入力がなくてもSMARC効果は生じることがわかった。この結果は，SMARC効果が音源定位の錯覚ではなく，音の空間的表象に基づいていることを示している。つまり，音は空間的に符号化されていると考えられる。
Skilled reading requires years of practice with learning to associate visual symbols with speech sounds. Over the course of the learning process, this association becomes automatic. We hypothesize that automatic activation of the reading circuit in response to visually presented words is a hallmark of successfully learning to read. We used magnetoencephalography to measure cortical responses to printed words while children engaged in an attention-demanding task for which the words were irrelevant. We found strong activation in the language processing regions, the superior temporal gyrus, irrespective of whether children were actively reading the words. This automatic response in this region was indicative of good reading skill: visual stimulus-driven STG responses were only present in fluent readers but not in children with dyslexia, confirming our hypothesis.
For successful reading, differentiating very minor graphic features of a Kanji character is crucial. It is an obstacle for L2 learners from non-Chinese character areas to learn complex and similar Kanji orthography. On the other hand, context effects are well known in sentence recognition. This study examined context effects on recognition of an erroneous Kanji character. An erroneous Kanji which was not either 未 nor 末was used as a stimuli. We compared correct rates of recognizing the erroneous Kanji when it was presented solely and presented in a sentence. Participants were 19 Japanese and 44 JSL (Japanese as a second language) learners, 12 Chinese, 9 Korean and 23 JSL-NC (JSL learners from non-Chinese character areas). Fisher’s exact tests showed that context effects were found only in Japanese. Chinese participants were advanced learners. This result might suggest that it is very difficult for L2 learners to utilize context.