Anticipated regret is known to be overestimated compared to actually experienced regret. We investigated this impact bias by comparing the results of "kuyashi" and "kokaishita" as words rating regret and examined the influence of additional rewards on regret in within-participants experiments. The degree of failure (narrow/wide) was manipulated and the two types of regret (anticipated/experienced) were assessed using two experimental tasks: (1) participants could control the results, or (2) they could not control the results. Experiment 1 was conducted with additional rewards and Experiment 2 was conducted without additional rewards. The results indicated (1) the impact bias was unassociated with the degree of failure, the type of task, or the rating word, (2) the rating value of "kokaishita" was lower in tasks in which participants could not control the results, and (3) the extrinsic motivation by additional rewards and intrinsic motivation by the enjoyment of the task affected regret.
This study investigated the effects of controllability of sad events and affective value of music on emotional changes. Sixty-five participants listened to happy or sad music after a sad mood was evoked by recalling sad events with high or low controllability. A questionnaire of mood state was given before and after listening to music. Participants controlled joystick in accordance with their emotional changes during the music.Results showed that both affective value of music had certain effects on emotional recovery regardless of the controllability of sad events, and participants recovered from bad moods faster when listening to happy music as compared to sad music.
The factors influencing poetry’s aesthetic appreciation are largely unknown. While psychological research on poetry is in early stages, some studies have reported the features affecting poetry’s aesthetic appreciation. Present study sought to determine which participants states and traits predict the aesthetic appeal of haiku poetry. 277 participants (Mage = 38.68, 209 female) were recruited to rate 37 haiku on five characteristics: imagery vividness, valence, arousal, felt emotion, and aesthetic appeal. Then, participants completed questionnaires (VVIQ, DPES-awe, Nostalgia-Proneness Scale). The result showed that both valence and imagery vividness predicted haiku’s aesthetic appeal; also, the imagery vividness’s influence on aesthetic appeal was mediated by felt emotion. As mental imagery fosters emotional evocation, vivid haiku imagery increases emotions associated aesthetic appeal. Furthermore, the traits of visual imagery abilities, awe-proneness, and nostalgia-proneness predicted haiku’s aesthetic appeal. This study advances our knowledge of how individual states and traits determine the aesthetic appeal of haiku.
本研究では，全国の18-79歳の1020（男504，女516）人に対してオンライン調査を実施した。過去をなつかしく思う個人差指標であるなつかしさ傾向性を，Southamptonノスタルジア尺度(Barrett et al., 2010)となつかしさポジティブ-ネガティブ傾向尺度（楠見,2014）で測定し，なつかしさの機能をなつかしさの機能尺度（Cheung et al., 2013）で測定した。あわせて，自尊心，生活満足度，時間的展望を測定した。その結果，ノスタルジア尺度となつかしさポジティブ傾向は，なつかしさの機能である他者とのつながり，自己の過去とのつながり，人生の意味，自己の理解と正相関，自尊心や生活満足度と正相関があった。また，人生の目的をお金と捉えることとは負の相関があった。また，なつかしさの機能に及ぼす加齢の効果は，なつかしさ傾向が低い人に働くことが明らかになった。
In previous research, it is hypothesized that information from high-expertise source is more persuasive, while this effect vanishes for issues in which one is highly involved. Given that compared with natural sciences, issues which social sciences study on are generally considered more relevant to life, we predicted that experts’ persuasiveness would differ in various academic fields. A 2 (academic field: social sciences vs natural sciences) × 3 (source expertise: high vs low vs control) design is adopted in the research, in which participants were asked to read 4 articles from 2 academic fields and make evaluations on persuasiveness, scientific level, involvement, difficulty and so on. The results showed that participants were better persuaded by sources with higher expertise and articles from natural sciences, while no interaction between two factors was observed. These findings indicated that source expertise and academic fields influence persuasiveness independently.
Subtle differences in linguistic descriptions can influence people’s evaluations and behaviors. Especially, self-identity relevant noun wording will increase people’s tendency to act in line with the noun label. Oppositely, in the case of undesirable identity, self-relevant nouns should cause people to avoid the behavior. The present study aims to explore the preventing of unethical behaviors by semantic priming. In two online experiments, participants are asked to make 10 coin-tosses and report the number of "head" results, indicating the amount of money that they can earn. We will manipulate instruction ("Don’t cheat" vs. "Don’t be a cheater" vs. baseline as a control) for each group. Base on the results, we will discuss how prohibited message expressions impact unethical behaviors.
Passengers in autonomous vehicles have a difficulty to predict the movement of the vehicles. This is a potential cause inducing the anxiety of the passengers. We investigated whether the presentation of cues predicting the movement of an autonomous vehicle reduced the anxiety of passengers. We also focused on age differences in the effect of the cues. Participants watched the movie recorded in a real driving situation while sitting on the rear sheet of a real car. While watching the movie, they continuously reported their anxiety by pulling or pushing a lever. To allow the participants to predict the movement of the car, two stimuli were added to the movie: (1) a white line drew on the center of a road as AR and (2) an alerting sound appearing immediately before a curve. These predictive cues reduced young but not old passengers’ anxiety, indicating the age difference in cue availability.
The widespread prevalence of fraud has led to numerous studies on its causes and prevention. For example, one recent study found a link between room brightness and occurrence of fraud behaviors. However, other physical environmental factors, especially temperature, which has numerous effects on human behavior, could influence fraud behavior but have not been examined. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate whether temperature affects fraud. We pre-registered a proposal to an international peer-reviewed journal as a registered report to enhance the reliability and transparency of the research. Based on a power analysis using the effect size from a pilot study, we recruited 105 participants and randomly divided them into three temperature groups, then counted fraud behaviors in each group and tested significant differences by using an ANOVA. Although no significant difference was observed, we clarify various considerations in the experiment and discuss the generality of the finding.
The uncanny valley phenomenon is assumed to be due to the anxiety of threat to human distinctiveness. According to previous studies, it is hypothesized that human-like robots are considered as belonging to the out-group, which leads to anxiety. Because the human faces of out-group members are difficult to recognize, we predicted that a similar effect would be obtained. The experiment contained a 2 (category: Human vs Human-like Robot) × 3 (facial expression: positive, negative and control) within-subject factor. Sixty face images with different expressions were selected through an online survey. In the experiment, observers learned half of the face images randomly. Then after a 5 minutes crossword puzzle, observers saw all the face images and recognized whether it has been learned before. The results showed that recognition performance was better in the negative expression condition than in the other conditions, although the performances were not significantly different between the categories.
Customers need to choose products or services while understanding risks of them. However, the descriptions of the risks cannot necessarily be detected and recognized due to the lack of attention. The present study examined that whether participants recognize descriptions of risks with two types of brochures of foreign-currency insurance products. Participants were instructed to read one of the brochures and to prioritize critical descriptions using metaattentional drawing procedure. We manipulated the presence or absence of the page title describing major risks. The descriptions about risks were frequently recognized under the title-present condition relative to the title-absent condition. The number of descriptions about risks did not produce significant impact on the participants’ awareness. These results indicated that the presence of explicit title is critical to acquire consumers’ awareness about the risks of insurance products.
This study investigated the influence of bilingual subtitles on attention allocation and comprehension while watching films with foreign language soundtracks. Eighty-eight college students whose native language was Chinese and second language English participated in the experiment. Two film clips, one with a low amount of scene information, another with a high amount of scene information, were used. Participants watched the clips in no subtitles, monolingual subtitles (Chinese) or bilingual subtitles (Chinese and English) condition, with their eye-movements recorded. An information test about the contents of the film was taken after watching each film clip. The results showed that when the film clip contained a lower amount of scene information, participants tend to spend more time reading English subtitles in bilingual subtitles, and the presence of bilingual subtitles might impair acquisition of scene information. We further discussed the results from the perspective of cognitive load theory.
We examined selective attention processes involved in the Eriksen flanker task by using hierarchical diffusion models. The model proposed by White, Ratcliff, and Starns (2011) assumed that attention is initially distributed across all stimuli, and that the attentional spotlight narrows to focus on the target stimulus during the time course of a trial. Our study extended this model to account for the well-known effect that the flanker interference decreases as interstimulus spacing broadens. The previous model did not fit the observed data of our experiment well. Therefore, we have proposed an alternative method of calculating the information accumulation rate within a trial, as the ratio of target-related information to all the inputs. Moreover, the model fit was improved by assuming a more converged distribution than the normal distribution as representing attentional distribution.
オンライン調査の回答者は，自己の所有する端末を用い，さまざまな環境下で回答を行う。本研究では，端末の種類（モバイル端末 vs PC）および，心理尺度の提示形式（1問 vs マトリックス）が調査への回答，特にその質にどのように影響するかを検討した。クラウドソーシングサービスを介して集められた参加者 (モバイル端末 n = 520，PC n = 485) はランダムに1問またはマトリックス条件に割り当てられ，注意チェック (ACQ)，教示操作チェック (IMC)，日本語版自尊感情尺度 (SE)，日本語版 TIPI-J を含む調査に回答した。その結果，モバイル端末を使用した回答者では，IMC の通過率，SE の内的一貫性，TIPI の下位尺度を構成する項目間の相関が低下することが示された。また，心理尺度における回答の質は，1問形式に比べマトリックス形式において低下することも示された。
In an online study, participants usually answered questionnaires using their own device. The present study investigated how the type of device (mobile vs. PC) and presentation format (single vs. matrix) impact quality of data obtained in online survey. Participants (mobile users = 520, PC users = 485) randomly assigned to either single or matrix condition completed questionnaires including attentional check question, instructional manipulation check, Rosenberg"s self-esteem scale, and Ten-item Personality Inventory (TIPI-J). Our results indicated that participants with mobile device were less likely to pass IMC question, and that internal consistency of self-esteem items and inter-item correlations of TIPI tended to show lower quality in mobile users than PC users. Furthermore, it was also shown that data quality was relatively lower when participants were presented with questions in matrix form than single (one items per page) form.
本研究では、言語的確率表現に基づく意思決定について分析を行い、文脈効果を検討した。具体的には、意思決定者の異なる確率的信念を生み出す文脈の違いによって意思決定がどのように変化するかについて検討を行った。この際、文脈効果はDecision by Samplingモデル（Stewart et al., 2006）によって説明できるという仮説のもと、Decision by Belief Samplingという新たなモデルを提案し、行動実験を実施した上で仮説の検証を行った。結果として、文脈の違いによって意思決定は変化し、またこの変化はDecision by Belief Samplingモデルによって説明できることが示された。
In the present study, we analyzed decisions based on verbally expressed probabilistic phrases (verbal probabilities) and examined how contextual factors affected such decisions. In particular, we focused on the difference in contexts that produced different probabilistic beliefs with regards to uncertain events. We hypothesized that such contextual effects could be explained in terms of a Decision by Sampling (DbS) account (Stewart et al., 2006). In order to examine our hypothesis, we proposed a modified version of DbS, Decision by Belief Sampling (DbBS), and conducted behavioral experiment about decision making. Results showed that decisions were significantly affected by the variation in contexts, and DbBS well explained such effects.
Psychological experiments vis online become popular in Japan. Previous studies indicated some evidences of validity of online experiment. Although online experiment is one of efficient way for psychological researches, it is true that some procedures or tasks are not available in online experiments. For example, recall tests is not suitable for online experiments, because the suggestion function, which is included in Input Method Editor（IME）, can aid recall when participants type their response. Recently, I developed a plugin that might overcome this problem. However, its validity has remained unclear. Therefore, this study investigated whenever recall-based phenomena, false memory and retrieval-induced forgetting, is replicated when the plugin is used. My results found that false recall and retrieval-induced forgetting were successfully observed. Given my results, online experiments using recall tests can be conducted under certain situation.
The study investigated the effect of thought suppression about coffee and tea on motivation for learning outside classroom. Participants wrote two report tasks. In thought suppression condition, participants wrote a report as they suppressed thought about coffee and tea. In control condition they wrote a report as they thought about anything. When participants started and finished a report, they wrote down each time. The results showed that participants more frequently thought about coffee and tea when they wrote a report in the thought suppression condition than when they wrote a report in the control condition. Importantly the time spent on writing a report was shorter in the though suppression condition than in the control condition. The results suggested that suppression of thought about coffee and tea declined motivation to write a report.
本研究は、歩行時の若年者と高齢者の身体周囲の視覚処理特性を研究しています。これまで転倒の原因として、「身体面」での変化による影響が確認されていますが、それ以外にも「視野の狭さ」といった認知的な要因も影響することが考えられる。今回の実験では、ルームランナーで若年者と高齢者を歩行させながら身体の正面と斜め下方向の2か所にディスプレイを配置し、attentional visual field taskを行った。実験の結果、高齢者において目標刺激の位置を正確に判断することは難しかったですが、大まかな位置の判断は可能であることが示されました。目標刺激の位置を正確に判断する場合において、高齢者では斜め下方向での検出成績に比べ、正面方向での成績が下がる傾向が見られた。また、大まかな位置を判断する場合には、ディスプレイ位置条件による違いが見られないことがわかった。
Embodied cognition theories have got much support in recent years from studies showing that multimodal experiential traces are activated during language processing and comprehension. However, there are not many studies examining this influence in the opposite direction. Here, we investigated the influence of modal (typical colors) during word processing in advanced class of Chinese Japanese learners. We also examined whether the effects of typical colors work in a different way depending on the form of words (kanji and kana words). In the experiment, the target word was presented after the prime, a rectangle with typical or atypical color in the target word, in which a lexical-decision task was required. As a result, the facilitation effect of typical colors was observed regardless of the form of words, further strengthening that empirical traces play an important role in language processing.
英語圏の研究 （Borghi, Glenberg, & Kaschak, 2004）では，文章理解時，登場人物の視点からその情景を見るような知覚的表象が生成されると示唆されている。他方，文化的認知様式は心理プロセスに影響を及ぼすとされ，文章理解時の知覚的表象の生成でも認知様式の文化差が反映される可能性がある。本研究はBorghi et al. (2004)を日本語で追試し，表象生成過程における文章の視点の効果を確認し，視点の効果は文化的認知様式を反映しているか検討した。文章（「あなたは車を運転しています。」）が示す対象への視点により，文章と対象の構成部位を表す語（「ハンドル」「タイヤ」）との関連性の反応時間に差が生じるか調べた。Borghi et al. (2004)と同様，文章の視点（内側／外側）と語が示す部位（内側／外側）が一致する場合，一致しない場合より反応時間が短かった。視点に関する言語的手がかりにより知覚処理が活性化され，生成された知覚的表象は，認知様式の違いによらず類似した傾向があると示唆される。
The anglophone studies (Borghi, Glenberg, & Kaschak, 2004) has demonstrated differences inperspective of the protagonist in sentences vary information obtained from sentences, suggestingwhen readers comprehend sentences, they generate perceptual representations with perspectiveof the protagonist. On the other hand, cultural cognitive styles affect psychological processes. Theprocess of perceptual representations in sentence comprehension may also reflect culturaldifferences in cognitive styles. We tested the effect of the perspective on the process ofrepresentation and whether differences in cultural cognitive styles affect the effect of perspectivewhen we retested using Japanese in Borghi et al. (2004). As a result, the RT was faster forcondition perspective and location of the part matched than for condition didn’t match. The resultreplicated Borghi et al. (2004). Perceptual processing is activated by linguistic cues about theperspective, suggesting that the perceptual representations generated tend to be similarregardless of cognitive style.
Suzuki (2018) reported that older adults have difficulty in learning individual"s trustworthiness in the investment game, in which they experience "good/bad guy" behaviors four times. Based on this, Harada et al.(2020) examined facilitating effects of conversation with younger adults on older adults" game performance, showing that improvements coming from shifting regulatory focus, not from improvement of their memory. In this study, we analyzed negative sides of supportive activity on face-recognition memory performance, which appeared only with younger adults (exp.1), and compared it with the new condition, the pairing younger adults (exp. 2). Results showed that decline in face memory by younger adults in exp.1 was not due to the age of younger participants, nor executing the task in pair, but to being paired with an older partner. Although for elders conversation with younger adults give benefits, we should be aware the cost of younger adults, as conversational load.
To improve cognitive functions in older adults, we have developed a social activity-based intervention program, named Photo-Integrated Conversation Moderated by Robots (PICMOR). To examine the intervention effects on cognitive functions, we previously conducted a randomized controlled trial for healthy older adults. In this pilot study, we conducted a follow-up experiment using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to provide candidate brain regions that could reflect the beneficial effects of PICMOR on the volume. Results showed that the volume of the lateral prefrontal cortex was significantly greater in the intervention group than in the control group. We also identified greater volume in the intervention group in the medial temporal lobe, posterior middle temporal gyrus, and postcentral gyrus. No regions showed greater volume in the control group than in the intervention group. Future research is needed to confirm this possible intervention effect by collecting and comparing MRI data from the pre- and post-intervention periods.