When increased production of secretory proteins overwhelms the capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus, eukaryotic cells expand their capacity to sustain secretory function. The capacity of the ER is enhanced by the mechanism called the ER stress response, but the mechanism regulating Golgi capacity (the Golgi stress response) has remained unclear. Here, we found that transcription of Golgi-related genes, including glycosylation enzymes as well as factors involved in post-Golgi vesicular transport and maintenance of Golgi structure, was upregulated upon treatment with monensin, an ionophore that disrupts the function of acidic organelles, including the Golgi apparatus and lysosomes by neutralizing their lumen. This transcriptional induction was found to be commonly regulated by a novel cis-acting element called the Golgi apparatus stress response element (GASE), whose consensus sequence is ACGTGgc. When the function of the Golgi apparatus was specifically disturbed by overexpression of GCP60, a Golgi-localized protein that binds to giantin, transcription from GASE was significantly induced. These results suggest that mammalian cells have the Golgi stress response, and that GASE regulates transcriptional induction involved in the Golgi stress response.
Purpose: Treatment with any cytotoxic agent can trigger surviving cells in a tumor to divide faster than before. This phenomenon is widely recognized as “repopulation”. To better clarify the mechanism, gene expression profiling and pathological experiments were performed. Materials and Methods: A mouse fibrosarcoma cell line, QRsP, was used. Cells were irradiated with 10 Gy. Colony assay and cloning were performed. Six clones were established. cDNA analysis was performed on the clone that showed the largest number of colonies on the 2nd 10 Gy irradiation. Mouse transplantation experiment was then carried out. Results: cDNA analysis showed that cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p16 and p57 were down-regulated; 14.8- and 12.0-fold, respectively for the tolerant clone. Matrix metalloproteinase 3 and 13 were up-regulated; 22.5- and 25.8-fold, respectively. Transplantation ratio was 100% (5/5) for the tolerant clone whereas it was 40% (2/5) for the parent. Under light microscope, the mean mitotic cell number was 4.0+/–3.9 for the parent, and 12.8+/–3.4 for the tolerant clone (p<0.01, Student’s t-test). Conclusions: This study implies that repopulation is not a temporary reaction to irradiation. It is caused probably by “clonal” gene-expression changes, though it remains unknown whether the changes are attributable to tolerant cell selection or to gene mutation/modification.
Differentiation-inducing factor-1 and -2 (DIF-1 and DIF-2) are small lipophilic signal molecules that control both cell differentiation and chemotaxis in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. In this study, we examined the effects of four amide derivatives of DIF-1 on stalk cell differentiation and chemotaxis. The DIF derivatives differentially affected cell differentiation and chemotaxis, suggesting the possible existence of at least three receptors for DIFs: one receptor responsible for stalk cell induction, and two receptors responsible for chemotaxis modulation. Furthermore, our results indicate that DIF derivatives can be utilized to analyze the DIF-signaling pathways.
We investigated the effects of SP600125 (formerly called c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor II) on translation using cultured mouse cells. SP600125 (50 μM) treatment rapidly repressed overall protein synthesis, accompanied by a reduction in the mRNAs for housekeeping genes such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the polysomal fraction. SP600125 decreased polysomes with a concomitant increase in free ribosomal subunits in the cytoplasm, suggesting that global translation was inhibited at the initiation step. A reporter analysis using exogenous mRNAs showed that SP600125 inhibited cap-dependent but not internal ribosome entry site-dependent translation. SP600125 significantly attenuated phosphorylation of components in the mTOR pathway, which is responsible for cap-dependent translation. In contrast to SP600125, short hairpin RNAs for JNK1 and JNK2 failed to affect overall protein synthesis. Collectively, SP600125 inhibits cap-dependent translation, independent of the JNK pathway.
The transcription factor ATF6 is constitutively synthesized as a type II transmembrane protein embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). When unfolded proteins accumulate in the ER, ATF6 senses such ER stress via an as yet undetermined mechanism and relocates to the Golgi apparatus where it is cleaved by sequential action of Site-1 and Site-2 proteases, allowing liberated N-terminal fragments to translocate into the nucleus. This ATF6-mediated transcriptional induction of ER-localized molecular chaperones and folding enzymes together with components of ER-associated degradation leads to the maintenance of ER homeostasis in mammals. Here, we demonstrated that the luminal domain of ATF6 alone is sufficient for sensing ER stress and subsequent transportation to the Golgi apparatus. This domain of ATF6 was inserted between the N-terminal signal sequence and C-terminal tandem affinity purification tag. The resulting ATF6(C)-TAP translocated into the ER, where it was glycosylated and disulfide bonded. ATF6(C)-TAP occurred as monomer and dimer, and exhibited a relatively short half-life, similar to full-length ATF6. On application of dithiothreitol- or thapsigargin-induced ER stress, the ER chaperone BiP dissociated from ATF6(C)-TAP, and ATF6(C)-TAP was transported to the Golgi apparatus and then secreted into medium. Calnexin and protein disulfide isomerase were identified as cellular proteins capable of binding to ATF6(C)-TAP in addition to BiP, and subsequent analysis revealed that protein disulfide isomerase was bound to ATF6(C)-TAP with chaperone activity. These findings indicate that ATF6(C)-TAP can be used as a tool to isolate protein(s) that escort ATF6 from the ER to the Golgi apparatus in response to ER stress.
The precise location of rDNA transcription to the components of mammalian cell nucleolus is still debated. This was due to the fact that all the molecules necessary for rRNA synthesis are located in two of the three components, the fibrillar centers (FCs) and the dense fibrillar component (DFC), which together with the granular component (GC) are considered to be constantly present in mammalian cell nucleoli. In the present study we demonstrated that in nucleoli of many regenerating rat hepatocytes at 15 h after partial hepatectomy the FCs were no longer present, only the DFC and the GC being detected. At this time of regeneration the rRNA transcriptional activity was three fold that of resting hepatocytes, while the synthesis of DNA was not yet significantly increased, indicating that these nucleolar changes were due to the rRNA synthesis up-regulation. The DFC appeared to be organized in numerous, small, roundish tufts of fibrils. The silver staining procedure for AgNOR proteins, which are associated with the ribosomal genes, selectively and homogeneously stained these fibrillar tufts. Immuno-gold visualization of the Upstream Binding Factor (UBF), which is associated with the promoter region and the transcribed portion of the rRNA 45S gene, demonstrated that UBF was selectively located in the fibrillar tufts. We concluded that in proliferating rat hepatocytes the increased synthesis of rRNA induced an activation of the rRNA transcription machinery located in the fibrillar centers which, by becoming associated with the ribonucleoprotein transcripts, assumed the morphological pattern of the DFC.
Many transport factors, such as importins and exportins, have been identified, and the molecular mechanisms underlying nucleocytoplasmic transport have been characterized. The specific molecules that are carried by each transport factor and the temporal profiles that characterize the movements of various proteins into or out of the nucleus, however, have yet to be elucidated. Here, we used a proteomic approach to identify molecules that are transported into the nuclei of adult mouse brain cells via importin α5. We identified 48 proteins in total, among which we chose seven to characterize more extensively: acidic (leucine-rich) nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family member A (Anp32a), far upstream element binding protein 1 (FUBP1), thyroid hormone receptor β1 (TRβ1), transaldolase 1, CDC42 effector protein 4 (CDC42-ep4), Coronin 1B, and brain-specific creatine kinase (CK-B). Analyses using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused proteins showed that Anp32a, FUBP1, and TRβ1 were localized in the nucleus, whereas transaldolase 1, CDC42-ep4, CK-B, and Coronin 1B were distributed in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Using a digitonin-permeabilized in vitro transport assay, we demonstrated that, with the exception of CK-B, these proteins were transported into the nucleus by importin α5 together with importin β and Ran. Further, we found that leptomycin B (LMB) treatment increased nuclear CK-B-GFP signals, suggesting that CK-B enters the nucleus and is then exported in a CRM1-dependent manner. Thus, we identified a comprehensive set of candidate proteins that are transported into the nucleus in a manner dependent on importin α5, which enhances our understanding of nucleocytoplasmic signaling in neural cells.
Flagellar movement of the sea urchin sperm is regulated by intracellular Ca2+. Flagellasialin, a polysialic acid-containing glycoprotein, as well as other membrane proteins seems responsible for the Ca2+ control. To elucidate the mechanism of Ca2+ dynamics underlying flagellar movement, we analysed the sperm’s mechanosensory behavioural responses by using microtechniques. In sea water containing 10 mM Ca2+, the sperm swim in circular paths. When a mechanical stimulus was applied to the sperm head with a glass microstylus, the sperm showed a series of flagellar responses, consisting of a stoppage of beating (quiescence) and a recovery of swimming in a straight path, followed by swimming in a circular path again; as the result the sperm avoided the obstacle. Ca2+-imaging with Fluo-4 showed that the intracellular Ca2+ was high in the quiescence and gradually decreased after that. The effects of blockers and antibodies against candidate components revealed that the Ca2+ influx was induced by Ca2+ channels and the Ca2+ efflux was induced by a flagellasialin-related Ca2+-efflux system, plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPases and the K+-dependent Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. The results show that the Ca2+-dependent mechanosensory behaviour of the sea urchin sperm is regulated by organized functioning of the membrane environment including the plasma membrane proteins and flagellasialin.
SMAP2 is an Arf GTPase-activating protein that is located and functions on early endosome membranes. In the present study, the trans-Golgi network (TGN) was verified as an additional site of SMAP2 localization based on its co-localization with various TGN-marker proteins. Mutation of specific stretches of basic amino acid residues abolished the TGN-localization of SMAP2. Over-expression of wild-type SMAP2, but not of the mutated SMAP2, inhibited the transport of vesicular stomatitis virus-G protein from the TGN to the plasma membrane. In contrast, this transport was enhanced in SMAP2 (–/–) cells characterized by increased levels of the activated form of Arf. SMAP2 therefore belongs to an ArfGAP subtype that resides on the TGN and functions as a negative regulator of vesicle budding from the organelle.
Electrostatic interactions between lipids and proteins control many cellular events. We found that phospholipids, including phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate, bound to the C-terminal coiled-coil region of par-3 at conserved, basic residues. We identified K1013 and K1014 as the phosphoinositide binding site, because the K1013E/K1014E mutation of rat par-3 abolished its lipid binding. Importantly, the K1013E/K1014E par-3 mutant exhibited significantly weaker localization at the cell-cell junctions than the wild-type par-3. Fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching analyses confirmed the faster turnover of mutant par-3 at cell-cell junctions. The treatment of cells with an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases partially increased the turnover of par-3. These data suggested that the putative phospholipid binding by par-3 is important for its localization at cell-cell junctions.
DREF (DNA replication-related element-binding factor) plays important roles in replication and proliferation in vivo by regulating transcription of various genes. However, due to a lack of appropriate cell biological studies in vivo, roles of DREF during a single cell development are poorly understood. To address this question, we focused our attention on macrochaetes bristle development system. Utilizing cell lineage analysis focusing on a single posterior scutellar (PSC) macrochaete sensory organ precursor (SOP) lineages in combination with GAL4/UAS targeted expression system for DREF double strand RNA, we revealed that DREF plays no apparent role in differentiation process during SOP formation. Rather, DREF regulates the timing of asymmetric cell division but perhaps plays no direct role in differentiation during asymmetric cell division. Most importantly, DREF affected replication and growth in shaft cells and/or socket cells. Further analysis revealed that DREF is necessary but not sufficient for nuclear growth and protein synthesis in shaft cells. Finally, it could be demonstrated that DREF plays a critical role in regulating pcna transcription in endocycling shaft cells. All these results provide evidence that DREF plays critical roles, especially in endoreplication process of bristle development, at least in part by regulating the pcna gene expression.
G9a is one of the well-characterized histone methyltransferases. G9a regulates H3K9 mono- and dimethylation at euchromatic region and consequently plays important roles in euchromatic gene regulation. Mammalian G9a contains several distinct domains, such as GHD (G9a homology domain), ANK, preSET, SET and PostSET. These domains are highly conserved between mammals and Drosophila. Although mammalian G9a has nuclear localization signal (NLS) in its N-terminal region, the amino acid sequences of this region are not conserved in Drosophila. Here we have examined the subcellular localization of a series of truncated forms of Drosophila G9a (dG9a). The identified region (aa337–aa470) responsible for nuclear localization of dG9a contains four short stretches of positively charged basic amino acids (NLS1, aa334–aa345; NLS2, aa366–aa378; NLS3, aa407–aa419; NLS4, aa461–aa472). Each of NLS1, NLS3 and NLS4 is sufficient for the nuclear localization when they are fused with the enhanced green fluorescent protein. These NLSs of dG9a are distinct from those of mammalian G9a in their positions and amino acid sequences.
To define the roles of α-catenin in cell-cell adhesion, the E-cadherin, α-catenin, β-catenin, and/or plakoglobin genes were inactivated in F9 teratocarcinoma cells. An E-cadherin-α-catenin fusion protein (Eα) restored full cell-adhesion function and organized the actin-based cytoskeleton and ZO-1, an actin filament binding protein, in F9 cells lacking all endogenous cadherin-catenin complex components. There were two types of cadherin-based cell-adhesion junctions in parental F9 cells, those with ZO-1 and those without ZO-1, and only junctions with ZO-1 were associated with thick actin bundles. Additionally, ZO-1 localized to most Eα-based cell-adhesion junctions. These data demonstrated that Eα supported cadherin-based cell adhesion and recruited actin bundles and ZO-1 to cell-cell contact sites in the absence of cytoplasmic α-catenin. Moreover, the C-terminal half of α-catenin was involved in the formation of cell-adhesion junctions with ZO-1.