Learning through problem posing is an essential way to understand problem structures in order to solve problems. The Triplet Structure Model defines the structure of arithmetic word problems solved by one-step addition or subtraction. Monsakun is a software for learning through problem posing in arithmetical word problems based on the Triplet Structure Model. The practical use of Monsakun in the Japanese language shows a learning effect on problem solving, as well as its usefulness for learning through problem posing. This study investigates whether the model works in languages other than Japanese. An analysis of the use of Monsakun by Japanese children and adults shows no significant difference between them. Another analysis of the use of Monsakun in English or Indonesian by non-native Japanese adults also shows no significant difference. We conclude that the Triplet Structure Model is not dependent on the Japanese language and has the potential to contribute to learning arithmetic word problems in languages other than Japanese.
This paper examines the self-perceived development of cultural intelligence (CQ) as expressed by Japanese university students taking courses on intercultural learning. An earlier developed instructional framework was employed to support course design and development, which is adapted in the current application for use in a blended-learning format. The development of CQ is explored through a qualitative analysis of data obtained in a series of reflection-based online surveys specifically designed to trace learning response patterns. The results show an array of learning responses that could be thematically organized and qualitatively linked to the development of CQ. We draw connections to the CQ concept via students’ self-reported advances in cultural knowledge, skills and strategies, as well as changes in attitudes and beliefs. Course effectiveness and learning engagement are discussed with implications for the design of a learning management system that supports the growth of CQ and the formation of a global mindset.
Metacognitive thinking skills, which monitor and control one’s thoughts, are an essential competency in various fields and domains. In general, teaching metacognitive skills is difficult because of the implicit nature of thinking. To promote learners’ metacognitive activities, we researched and confirmed that, when critically reading a learner’s paper, the learner’s and expert’s eye-movement information contributed to enhancing the learner’s metacognitive inference activities (MIA) and metacognitive knowledge. In this study, we embedded our metacognitive learning method into daily lab activities to sustainably promote learners’ MIA. This metacognitive learning design was continuously employed in our laboratory for three months. Experimental results showed that our proposed learning design could be successfully adapted to learners’ daily lab activities. In addition, the results suggested that continuous practice could contribute to improving learners’ metacognitive awareness.
To achieve fruitful, creative discussions, it is important for speakers to verbalize and share the intentions behind their utterances with their listeners. Our research objective is to propose an activity support system for cultivating novice researchers’ intention sharing skills. We develop a research activity support system in which researchers can focus on organizing the structure of their thought processes in a pyramid made of chains of inquiries and answers. Then, we explain the support functions, evaluate the system, and explain the results. After learners used the system for about one year, we found that they experienced positive changes in their critical thinking and intention sharing skills. In addition, we found indications that the system was especially useful as a set of “training wheels” for relatively novice researchers.
This study proposes an index for automatically measuring the ease of listening materials to be understood (hereafter, listenability) based on the normalized edit distance between reference sentences and learners’ transcription sentences (hereafter, NED). Listenability should be examined in order to maintain the motivation of learners or increase the learning effect. However, unlike the measurement of the ease of reading materials to be understood in terms of readability, little attention has been paid to listenability, and when it has been studied, it was determined by learners’ subjective judgment, which is affected by learners’ bias. This study found that NED was more reliable and valid than subjective judgments in an experiment done with 50 learners of English as a foreign language. Furthermore, the accuracy of the listenability measurement was acceptable, because the listenability measured with the multiple regression analysis had a strong correlation (r = 0.77) with the observed listenability in a leave-one-out cross validation test.
We developed a teaching aid for teaching dynamic motion using a marker-less AR device based on the Tango platform. The mass point motion along a real potential is rendered in an augmented reality space. This teaching aid enables learners to observe a mass point motion in any potential. The accuracy of the motion measurements was evaluated based on the results of uniformly accelerated motion along the slopes and free-fall motion.
In previous research, we proposed a framework for a kit-build concept map (KB map), in which a learner is provided a set of components with which to build a concept map. In that framework, the learner's constructed map can be diagnosed automatically. The task of building a concept map out of provided components is a promising exercise for strengthening and assessing a learner's comprehension of a learned topic. In general, the multiple-choice task of fill-in-the-blank (FIB) questions can also be used to strengthen and assess a learner's comprehension, and the answers can be automatically evaluated. In this paper, we discuss our process for designing a set of FIB questions that can be generated from a concept map. Then, we compare the KB map task with the FIB multiple choice task. Both tasks can be generated from the same concept map: that is, from the same content. We compare the two tasks, using three science lessons for fifth graders in two classes. One class uses the KB map and the other uses the FIB questions. In this experiment, the KB task evaluated the learners' comprehension more adequately than did the FIB question task, and the students in the KB class performed at a higher level than did the students in the FIB class.
Understanding electromagnetic induction, whose study is part of the middle school curriculum in Japan, is difficult for students. Thus, this study developed an augmented reality (AR) teaching aid for electromagnetic induction for middle school students. Magnetic lines are illustrated in three dimensions as an AR using conventional tablet PCs. Lessons were conducted with 127 middle school students, and the changes in their explanation of the principle of electromagnetic induction were investigated before and after using the teaching aid. The investigation revealed that only 3% of the students could explain scientifically the principle of electromagnetic induction before using the teaching aid; however, 63% of them were able to provide a scientific explanation after the AR teaching aid was applied.
In language learning contexts, reading comprehension is an important learning activity. In English as a foreign language (EFL) reading comprehension learning, a frequent reading style is the sentence-by-sentence style, in which learners understand the text only as separate sentences, not as a whole structure. This study focuses on the structural understanding of the text and map-making the process from the viewpoint of the paragraph. The assumption in this study is that map-making in KB mapping does not follow sentence order but focuses on sets of meanings formed by paragraphs. This study investigates the relation between the map-making processes in KB and SB mapping and the paragraph structure of the text.
In this paper, we report improvements made and their effect on the design of pre-training preparation in a blended instructional design workshop. Through practical research, the design was refined to include a three-stage question-making activity (QMA) for pre-training preparation. The stages included 1) Submitting a question before the commencement of learning, 2) Working on teaching materials, and 3) Submitting a question based on reflection on pre-training preparation. After verifying the effects, it is suggested that question quality saw an improvement owing to the introduction of the QMA, with some cases becoming more concrete and focused. It was also confirmed that this method can encourage learning motivation by enhancing participants’ confidence, satisfaction, and familiarity with learning content.